Objectives of the team

The ORCHIDEE project is dedicated to the development of the global Land Surface Model (LSM) ORCHIDEE and its use for a wide range of applications (from land surface processes to climate studies). The project is centered around a project team (referred to as the “ORCHIDEE project group”) whose main objective is to coordinate the strategy for the model development, maintenance, validation, distribution, and valorisation.

The project team consists of a “steering committee” including around 15 scientists (see figure below) who meet every two months to discuss and coordinate all model developments, validation and valorisation. Three specific tasks linked to the main responsabilities of the project team have been identified with a key leader:

    • Maintenance of the ORCHIDEE code (J. Ghattas).
    • Evaluation and validation of successive code releases (N. Vuichard).
    • General code quality, including documentation, risk assessment, and promotion of the code (F. Maignan).

Project leader: Philippe Peylin

Figure 1: Organisation of the project team

Role & responsabilities of the team

The ORCHIDEE project group:

Makes decisions about

    • the developments that will integrate into the standard version of ORCHIDEE
    • the order in which these developments will be included


    • Recruitment of engineers dedicated to model developments
    • Planning of the different engineers resources
    • Shared funding to hire some of the engineers
    • Interactions with the different laboratories and institutes that are involved in the
      development of the model, and in particular the “pôle de modélisation” of IPSL institute.


    • Regular deliveries of tagged versions of the model and their robustness at several computer centers (CCRT, IDRIS, LSCE)
    • Scientific evaluation
    • Updates of code documentation within these tagged versions
    • Production, archiving and access to reference simulations (both uncoupled and coupled to the GCM)
    • Training to new users through regular courses
    • User support through several tools (wiki site, help list via email, etc)

Communicates to all partners (developers, users, partner institutes) information on :

    • developement planning and their integration into the main code
    • ongoing and forthcoming research projects that use ORCHIDEE
    • mid-term strategy plans by annually updating this document.


    • an annual general assembly
    • a project review with the partner institute managements
      (LMD and LSCE laboratories, “pôle de modélisation” of IPSL)

HOW to contact us ?

See contact section

Core team of ORCHIDEE

NameInstituteMain interestEmail
Cadule PatriciaIPSLCoupled mode management
Fire module (SPITFIRE)
Ciais PhilippeIPSL/LSCEContributions to overall direction and
Chéruy FrédériqueIPSL/LMDContributions to coupling with
Ducharne AgnèsSisyphe/UPMCContributions to / management of hydrology and
Ghattas JosefineIPSLCode
Krinner GerhardLGGEContributions to high latitudes
Lathière JulietteIPSL/LSCEManagement of coupling with
Luyssaert SebastiaanIPSL/LSCEIntegration of developments: nitrogen, forest management module / Contributions to the new energy balance scheme / Scientific
Maignan FabienneIPSL/LSCEGlobal simulations (inter-comparisons)
Validation / Optimization remote sensed data
Documentation / Risk analysis
Ottlé CatherineIPSL/LSCEContributions to snow and permafrost
Peylin PhilippeIPSL/LSCEProject Management / General contributions
Adjoint model
Polcher JanIPSL/LMDContributions to / management of hydrology, routing and energy
Viovy NicolasIPSL/LSCEGeneral contributions to Stomate and the DGVM
Nitrogen cycle integration / Forest management module
Vuichard NicolasIPSL/LSCEIntegration of biogeochemical developments
Assessment of impacts
Research: Impact of management of agro- systems

Other users and developers

NameInstituteMain interestFields of expertise (scientific and technical)Email
Fita Lluís ,Sörensson Anna, Schrapffer Anthony
(with J. Polcher)
Centro de Investigaciones del Mar y la Atmósfera
(CIMA) Argentina
River flow, floods, land-surface water bodies-atmosphere interaction in South America-Regional climate modelling
- model development and coupling
- extreme events
- land-atmosphere interaction
MacBean NatashaUniversity of Arizona / Indiana University (from August 2018)1. Semi-arid ecosystem C/W/E processes & trends and contribution to IAV of global C budget
2. Testing of eCO2 and WUE changes on LAI and aboveground biomass in comparison to tree rings/satellites (within PalEON project -
Carbon cycle, phenology/vegetation trends, CH4, hydrology, land cover and change,  offline simulations, data assimilation, global, regional, semi-arid ecosystems, remote sensing data. ;
Barichivich JonathanUniversidad Austral de ChileParameterisation and a range of applications of ORCHIDEE-CN-CAN in tropical and temperate South America in collaboration with S. Luyssaert and P. PeylinWater and carbon cycling, drought and extreme events, tree rings, satellite
Valade AudeCREAFInclusion of traits variability in ORCHIDEE-CN-CAN for application to response of forests to droughts.
Project: MSC-fellowship M-TRAITS
Forest management, Carbon cycle, hydraulic
Yue ChaoLSCE, NWAFU1. Historical and future land-use change and its contribution to global carbon budget;
2. Fires in the earth system and its feed back to vegetation and climate
3. Vegetation dynamics focusing on semi-arid regions of China.
4. Coupling vegetation models to soil erosion models.
5. Carbon and Hydrological impacts on semi-arid regions.
Land use change; fires and other disturbances, vegetation dynamics, forest
Jeong JinaVU AmsterdamUsing tree-ring widths and their isotopic composition to optimize the global land surface model ORCHIDEE and LMDz
Project: VERIFY, PhD-studies
Carbon allocation, tree growth, 13C isotopic discrimination,
Lansøb Anne SofieLSCEEffects of litter raking on present day C-sink in European forests
Project: DESIRE
Carbon cycle, Forest management,
Resovsky AlexLSCEEvaluation of ORCHIDEE-CN-CAN against combined fertilization and management trials in Sweden
Project: DESIRE
Marie GuillaumeVU AmsterdamEffects of bark beetle infestation on the European carbon sink
Project: AAA (Amsterdam Academic Alliance)
Forest management, Carbon cycle,
Chen Yi-YingAcademia Sinicia, TaiwanEffects of typhoons on c-budget, surface, boundary layer climate, and regional land cover changes
Janssen ThomasVU AmsterdamDifferential effects on leaves, trees and tropical forests under seasonal, episodic and multi-seasonal drought
Project: PhD-studies
Ecophysiological responses to droughts,
Goll DanielLSCENutrients (N,P) cycles and their interactions with cycles of carbon and water, weathering,
Project IMBALANCE-P (hired by), proposals in prep and under review
Terrestrial biogeochemical cycles, model development (ORCHIDEE, JSBACH),
Guimberteau MatthieuLSCEHydrology and routing: improve, evaluate, sensitivity tests
Projects: - Main (hired by): IMBALANCE-P
- Collaboration: CHINA-TREND-STREAM
Land surface hydrology, river routing scheme, atmospheric forcings.
Model codes: MICT, TRUNK, CNP
Bacour CédricNOVELTISOngoing & forthcoming projects:
-Data assimilation for improving ORCHIDEE parameterization (in situ flux measurements, atm. CO2, remote sensing products of vegetation photosynthetic capacity & activity...)
- Modelling of canopy fluorescence (Sun Induced Fluorescence - SIF)
- Fluorescence
- Radiative transfer
- Data assimilation
- Remote sensing
Qiu ChunjingLSCEModeling of peatlands hydrology, peatlands C decomposition and accumulation, peatlands area extentsORCHIDEE-MICT
Northern peatlands C and hydrology
Bowring SimonLSCEDOC production, transport, transformation in permafrost systems from plants to soils to the hydrosystem; new sub-branch of ORCHIDEE-MICT.High latitudes; terrestrial and marine ecology.
Verbeke ThomasMETISEcophysiological and physical processes modelling involved in Biosphere/Atmosphere interactions.  Sub-branch ORCHIDEE-GW. Tropospheric ozone impact on vegetation. Water-Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continuum. Impact of groundwater level evolution on near-surface climate. Code development.
Chang JinfengLSCECarbon-Nitrogen-Phosphorus cycles of grassland, and its response to climate and management change.
Project: hired by IMBALANCE-P
Grassland management, Carbon-nutrient
Naudts KimMPI-M LESEffect of species interactions on drought responseForest management, carbon cycle, drought response (hydraulic architecture), plant
Zhou XudongLMDHuman processes in ORCHIDEE’s water cycleThe high resolution is the main ingredient
Raoult Nina LSCE-Data assimilation with ORC, currently focusing on soil moisture and will link to the carbon cycle.
-Helping to develop the tangent linear of the model
Data assimilation (variational mainly - adjoints), carbon
Li WeiLSCEBioenergy crop modeling in MICTBioenergy crops; Land use
Peaucelle MarcLSCE-CREAFResource use coordination (water/Co2/light/nutrients) based on ecological principles (optimality);
Representation of functional traits;
Acclimation ;
Project: Imbalance-P
Functional ecology;
Forest management;
Plant physiology;
Petrus KarineLSCE-Development of ORCHIDEE-MEB
-Implementation of a multi-bilan energy in ORCHIDEE: ORCHIDEE-MEB
-Implementation of a lake model in ORCHIDEE: ORCHIDEE-LAK
Bastrikov VladislavLSCE- data assimilation with ORCHIDEE
- technical support (data assimilation system, outputs visualization system, land cover maps production, forcings testing, reference simulations performance)
- albedo optimization
Data scientist, scientific software
Haslehner MylèneLSCE-Working on the joint analysis of carbonylsulfide (COS) and CO2
-Helping to develop the tangent linear
-Later goal: Data assimilation with ORCHIDEE
Data assimilation,
Carbon cycle
Joetzjer EmilieLSCE-EDB -working on the Amazon forest response to drought (including tree mortality) in ORCHIDEE-CAN Water and carbon cycling, drought and extreme
Combe MarieCAVElab, Ghent University- application of ORCHIDEE-CNP over the Congo Basin
- sensitivity of the model to total atmospheric deposition of N and P
NB: I was not hired on the IMBALANCE-P project but and now participating to the project meetings
Carbon cycling and vegetation drought response in - croplands
- tropical forests.
Now starting to know more about N and P cycling too or
Bruni ElisaLSCE-Investigate interactions between terrestrial vegetation and atmospheric deposition
-Climate forcing impacts on N:P ratio increasing trends in European forests
biosphere -atmosphere interactions
Data analysis
Abramoff RoseLSCEA flexible, data-driven framework to predict soil responses to land-use and climate changeSoil
Chen XiuzhiLSCEPhenology of tropical evergreen forests
Alaoui OmarLSCECrop modeling in EuropeCrop
Peng ShushiPKUCH4 in wetlands / attributionCH4 cycle / biosphere -atmosphere interactions
-Data analysis
Wang XuhuiLSCECrop models global development and applications / crop rotations
Yuan ZhangLSCE LMDDiffuse light effects / aerosols effects on vegetation-atmosphere interactionsbiosphere -atmosphere
Zun (Vincent) YinLSCEIrrigation and water balance in ChinaLand surface
Weizhe (Jeremy) ChenLSCEExtreme events in China /
Céline Gommet ULB LSCEDOC in European riversDOC
Ronny LauerwaldULBRiver carbon and nutrient transportRiver loop of biogeochemical
Dan ZhuLSCEHigh latitudes / large mammalsbiosphere -atmosphere
Victoria NaipalLSCEErosion (with ORCHIDEE emulator)
Fabio Cresto AlenaLSCEModelling forest succession and interspecies competition in the tropical forest using ORCHIDEE-CANForest biogeochemistry (ORCHIDEE-CAN), peatlands and methane
Haicheng ZhangLSCESOC decomposition - optimality
Marko KvavikINRACrop limitations by
Yuanyuan HuangLSCEMatrix based traceability frameworkModel
Yan SunLSCEPhosphorus emerging limitations P
Fabio BerzhaghiLSCEHerbivores (not started with ORCHIDEE yet)
Ye HuangLSCEHeating
Narayanappa DevarajuLSCEVegetation atmosphere coupling- quantification (ORCHIDEE_trunk)
LMDZ-ORCHIDEE-MICT coupling Related to IMBALANCE-P project
Land atmosphere
Delphine TardifIPGPInteraction vegetation - climat - paléogéographie - paramètres orbitaux - pCO2 au Cénozoique (utilisation de IPSLCM5A2).
Végétation dynamique et semi dynamique
Albert Jornet PuigLSCETechnical part of Orchidee MICT Software Engineer
HPC,Debugging, Parallelization
Salmon ElodieLSCE / LPC2EMethane emissions from peatland in high latitude region
Northern peatlands, C cycle in high latitude, green house gases emssions.