Ongoing Projects

Accepted / Running projects
Project nameProject leaderDurationObjective (with respect of ORCHIDEE)
VERIFYP. Peylin2018-2021Simulate C-balance of EU ecosystems
ESM-SnowMIPG. Krinner2016-Evaluate snow parameterizations, quantify role of snow in climate feedbacks
M-TRAITA. Valade2018-2020Role of traits plasticity for response of trees to droughts
TOSCA-SWOTC. Ottlé2016-2020Role of Lakes in climate modeling and use of satellite data to improve their representation
ESA-HRLCC. Ottlé/P. Peylin2018-2021Use HR Land Cover data to improve energy and water cycles parametrisations
I-GEMA. Ducharne, with also F. Cheruy2015-2019Add the influence of groundwater on soil moisture and the surface fluxes
C-CASCADESP. Ciais for ORCHIDEE2015-2019Represent lateral fluxes of DOC from high latitude
ASSESSB. Guenet2018-2021Estimate the erosion cost over the meediteranenan bassin
CLIMAXN Viovy20017-2020Interaction between vegetation and atmosphere in tropical region
PREVIPOLN Viovy20017-2020Predicting risk of pollen allergy over France
ECOFLUOY. Goulas (LMD)2017-2019Fluorescence measurements and assimilation
IMBALANCEPP.CiaisPhosphorus cycling
TOSCA / BIOMASSPhilippe Peylin2018 (renewable)Use of forest biomass satellite data (BIOMASS futur mission) to improve ORCHIDEE;



Fair Use Policy for ORCHIDEE

The fair use policy is designed to ensure that the individuals and teams that develop the ORCHIDEE model receive proper credit for their work.

We first define the model code, drivers and run environment as the overall ORCHIDEE environment. Maintaining a state of the art ORCHIDEE environment come with a significant investment of time for coding, debugging and evaluating the impacts of any developments (biogeochemical, physical and anthropogenic processes) on the overall performance of the model. The fair use policy will help recognizing the intellectual contribution of the individuals who contributed to the ORCHIDEE environment.

The policy applies to the use of a referenced version described below. This model version is freely available; it is furnished by the ORCHIDEE project group who encourage its use. Please kindly inform by email (orchidee-projet at how you will use the model and of any publication plans.  The scientists who provided the ORCHIDEE environment or potentially existing model outputs will tell you if they feel they should be acknowledged or offered participation as co-authors. We assume that an agreement on such matters will be reached before publishing and/or use of the data for publication. If your work directly competes with an ongoing investigation, the scientists who provided the ORCHIDEE environment or model output may ask to have the opportunity to submit a manuscript before you submit your study with ORCHIDEE.

Recognition of intellectual contributions to the ORCHIDEE environment will be ensured by:

  • Offering co-authorship on any publication that benefits of recent improvements in the ORCHIDEE environment. We deliberately refrain from specifying ‘recent’ as it should be function of the intellectual contribution and the exposure this contribution already received.
  • Discussing, early on, intended usage of recent improvements in the ORCHIDEE environment. This discussion should prevent uses and/or applications of the ORCHIDEE environment which are in conflict with the plans of the main contributor.

The fair use policy is designed as a win-win opportunity for both users and developers of the ORCHIDEE environment. It warrants the continuation of ambitious model developments and thus contributes to safeguarding our leadership in land surface modelling.

How to use ORCHIDE

1) Free use of a referenced version

The version that was used for the CMIP5 exercice is freely available.
Access to the code:

  • Downloading and running the code: Given the current limited engineering staff within the ORCHIDEE group, we can not provide the full support that would be needed to install and easily run the model on any server. In this context, please contact a relevant person from the ORCHIDEE project team (see list of the core team) to establish a more direct collaboration in order to benefit from the support/investment of an ORCHIDEE expert.

Support: see the online documentation

2) Use of follow-up more recent versions

ORCHIDEE is a continuously evolving research tool. Despite the efforts of documenting and validating tags before their release, new users are likely to require help to correctly use the full functionality of ORCHIDEE and its run environment. For this purpose, we ask  new users to establish a direct contact with someone from the ORCHIDEE project group (see list of the core team) or by sending an email to orchidee-projet at with the explanation of your intended use of ORCHIDEE.

Note that we organize regular training days detailing the scientific basis of the model as well as the technical aspects of its run environment.
For new users, the first line of support is the ORCHIDEE wiki (online documentation). The second line of support is the supervisor or contact person in the core team. For users who participated in the training days and have a formal working agreement with the ORCHIDEE project team a third line of support is the help mailing list for support from unregistered users, non-academic users or users without a working agreement with someone from the “ORCHIDEE-Project team” will not be considered through by the help mailing list.

We may need your expertise

The IPSL (Institut Pierre Simon Laplace) gathers 9 laboratories whose research topics focus on the global environment with a common strategy for the study of the Earth System as a whole A major research mission is to contribute to a better understanding of the interactions between human activities in the Earth System, environment and climate dynamics at different time scales. If you have a PhD in mathematics, physics, engineering, computer science, meteorology, or physiology, or you believe that your skills could contribute to the development of ORCHIDEE as the land surface component of the IPSL Earth System model, feel free to send us your CV, a customized letter of motivation and three names of people who are willing to act as references.

Team logistics

ORCHIDEE team meetings

The ORCHIDEE project group has defined a series of regular meetings to achieve the objectives of the project group and to maintain a regular flow of information between the core “ORCHIDEE project group” and the ensemble of developers and users (non-permanent scientists and engineers). The idea is to have regular meetings each week and to alternate between:

    • Technical meetings: Restricted to the steering committee and few other active developers. These concern management of the code, scientific and technical discussions concerning the implementation of the ORCHIDEE project decisions, and follow-ups of engineering work.
    • Project meetings: Restricted to the steering committee. The main objectives are general decision making and coordination of the model developement.
    • Developer/user meeting: Open to all. The main objectives are: 1) to inform all developers/users of the code about the ongoing ORCHIDEE developments and branch integration into the main version, and 2) to present and discuss a specific ongoing development (scientific or technical).

Management of the code:

In order to increase the efficiency of the code maintenance, development and management, we have grouped the different modules and routines by processes/technical aspects, following the diagram below. For each process or technical aspect, one person from the steering committee is responsible for managing all technical and scientific problems/bugs that arise (usually managed through a “ticket” system) and to report to the steering committee about the evolution of that part of the code.

How to contact us ?

Three mailing lists are used in order to facilitate the flow of information at different levels.

    • ORCHIDEE projet ( This list is restricted to the steering committee. It may be used by external people for a general request about the ORCHIDEE project
    • ORCHIDEE DEV ( To facilitate the exchange of technical information among all users/developers of the ORCHIDEE model, in paticular to circulate information on new technical improvements/developments, to report problems/bugs and to notify about ‘commits’ made by the ORCHIDEE team. You can subscribe at
    • ORCHIDEE HELP ( For developers or users of the ORCHIDEE model to ask specific questions (mainly technical) linked to the use of the model or to report problems/bugs. This mailing list should be used only as a last resort.


Objectives of the team

The ORCHIDEE project is dedicated to the development of the global Land Surface Model (LSM) ORCHIDEE and its use for a wide range of applications (from land surface processes to climate studies). The project is centered around a project team (referred to as the “ORCHIDEE project group”) whose main objective is to coordinate the strategy for the model development, maintenance, validation, distribution, and valorisation.

The project team consists of a “steering committee” including around 15 scientists (see figure below) who meet every two months to discuss and coordinate all model developments, validation and valorisation.

Project leader: Philippe Peylin

Steering committee :

NameInstituteMain interests
Barichivich JonathanIPSL/LSCEParameterisation and a range of applications of ORCHIDEE-CN-CAN in tropical and temperate South America
Bastrikov VladislavScience Partners- data assimilation with ORCHIDEE
- technical support
Cadule PatriciaIPSLCoupled mode management
Fire module (SPITFIRE)
Ciais PhilippeIPSL/LSCEContributions to overall direction and developments
Chéruy FrédériqueIPSL/LMDContributions to coupling with LMDZ
Ducharne AgnèsSisyphe/UPMCContributions to / management of hydrology and routing
Ghattas JosefineIPSLCode maintancence
Goll DanielLSCENutrients (N,P) cycles and their interactions with cycles of carbon and water, weathering,
Lathière JulietteIPSL/LSCEManagement of coupling with chemistry
Luyssaert SebastiaanVU AmsterdamForest management, forest disturbances, tree growth and tree mortality modules
Maignan FabienneIPSL/LSCEPhotosynthesis and related processes (fluorescence, photoprotection, radiative transfer)
Marie GuillaumeLSCE/Science PartnerForest management and forest disturbances
Ottlé CatherineIPSL/LSCEContributions to snow and permafrost developments
Peylin PhilippeIPSL/LSCEProject Management / General contributions
Adjoint model
Polcher JanIPSL/LMDContributions to / management of hydrology, routing and energy balance
Salmon ElodieLSCEMethane emissions from peatland in high latitude region
Valade AudeCIRADInclusion of traits variability in ORCHIDEE-CN-CAN for application to response of forests to droughts.
Viovy NicolasIPSL/LSCEGeneral contributions to Stomate and the DGVM
Nitrogen cycle integration / Forest management module
Vuichard NicolasIPSL/LSCEIntegration of biogeochemical developments
Assessment of impacts
Research: Impact of management of agro- systems
Xiaoni Wang-FaivreLSCE/IPSLcode development and maintenance in ORCHIDEE, evaluation tool development and data processing, emulation applications to ORCHIDEE by using machine learning
Yue ChaoLSCE1. Historical and future land-use change
2. Fires in the earth system
3. Carbon and Hydrological impacts on semi-arid regions.



Role & responsabilities of the team

The ORCHIDEE project group:

Makes decisions about

    • the developments that will integrate into the standard version of ORCHIDEE
    • the order in which these developments will be included


    • Recruitment of engineers dedicated to model developments
    • Planning of the different engineers resources
    • Shared funding to hire some of the engineers
    • Interactions with the different laboratories and institutes that are involved in the
      development of the model, and in particular the “pôle de modélisation” of IPSL institute.


    • Regular deliveries of tagged versions of the model and their robustness at several computer centers (CCRT, IDRIS, LSCE)
    • Scientific evaluation
    • Updates of code documentation within these tagged versions
    • Production, archiving and access to reference simulations (both uncoupled and coupled to the GCM)
    • Training to new users through regular courses
    • User support through several tools (wiki site, help list via email, etc)

Communicates to all partners (developers, users, partner institutes) information on :

    • developement planning and their integration into the main code
    • ongoing and forthcoming research projects that use ORCHIDEE
    • mid-term strategy plans by annually updating this document.


    • an annual general assembly
    • a project review with the partner institute managements
      (LMD and LSCE laboratories, “pôle de modélisation” of IPSL)

HOW to contact us ?

See contact section

Main users and developers

NameInstituteMain interestEmail
Bacour CédricLSCE- Data assimilation
- Fluorescence
- Radiative transfer
- Remote sensing
cedric.bacour at
Barichivich JonathanIPSL/LSCEParameterisation and a range of applications of ORCHIDEE-CN-CAN in tropical and temperate South Americajonathan.barichivich at
Bastrikov VladislavScience Partners- data assimilation with ORCHIDEE
- technical support
vladislav.bastrikov at
Bowring SimonLSCEHigh latitudes; terrestrial and marine ecology.
simon.bowring at
simon_bowring at
Cadule PatriciaIPSLCoupled mode management
Fire module (SPITFIRE)
patricia.cadule at
Céline Gommet ULB LSCEDOC in European riversceline.gommet at
Chang JinfengLSCEGrassland management, Carbon-nutrient interactionsjinfengchang at
Chen Yi-YingAcademia Sinicia, TaiwanEffects of typhoons on c-budget, and regional land cover changesyiyingchen at
Chéruy FrédériqueIPSL/LMDContributions to coupling with LMDZcheruy at
Ciais PhilippeIPSL/LSCEContributions to overall direction and developmentsphilippe.ciais at
Cuynet AmélieIPSL/LSCEContributions to snow and soil physical processesamelie.cuynet at
Dan ZhuLSCEHigh latitudes / large mammalsdan.zhu at
Delphine TardifIPGPInteraction vegetation - climat - paléogéographie - paramètres orbitaux - pCO2 au Cénozoique (utilisation de IPSLCM5A2).
Végétation dynamique et semi dynamique
tardif at
Ducharne AgnèsSisyphe/UPMCContributions to / management of hydrology and routingAgnes.Ducharne at
Fita Lluís ,Sörensson Anna, Schrapffer Anthony
(with J. Polcher)
Centro de Investigaciones del Mar y la Atmósfera
(CIMA) Argentina
River flow, floods, land-surface water bodies-atmosphere interaction in South Americalluis.fita at
Ghattas JosefineIPSLCode maintancencejosefine.ghattas at
Goll DanielLSCENutrients (N,P) cycles and their interactions with cycles of carbon and water, weathering,
daniel.goll at
Guenet BertrandLG-ENS/IPSLsoil biogeochemistry offline and coupled within the ESMguenet at
Haicheng ZhangLSCESOC decomposition - optimality theoryhaicheng.zhang at
Jeong JinaVU AmsterdamStorm, drought and bark beetle interactionsj.jeong at
Katrin FleischerVU AmsterdamPhosphorous cycle, plant traits and tropical forestkfleischer at
Kialka FilipLG-ENS/IPSLHow change in porosity affects soil hydrlogykialka at
Lansøb Anne SofieLSCECarbon cycle, Forest management, ORCHIDEE-CN-CANanne-sofie.lanso at
Lathière JulietteIPSL/LSCEManagement of coupling with chemistryjuliette.lathiere at
Luyssaert SebastiaanVU AmsterdamForest management, forest disturbances, tree growth and tree mortality moduless.luyssaert at
MacBean NatashaUniversity of Arizona / Indiana University (from August 2018)Carbon cycle, phenology/vegetation trends, data assimilation, semi-arid ecosystems.nlmacbean at ; nmacbean at
Maignan FabienneIPSL/LSCEPhotosynthesis and related processes (fluorescence, photoprotection, radiative transfer)
fabienne.maignan at
Marie GuillaumeLSCE/Science PartnerForest management and forest disturbancesguillaume.marie at
Marine RemaudVU AmsterdamStorm, drought and bark beetle interactionsm.a.c.c.remaud at
Marko KvavikINRACrop limitations by Pmarko.kvakic at
Naudts KimVU AmsterdamEcohydrology and plant physiologyk.naudts at
Omar FloresVU AmsterdamSoil trophic food webo.flores.rodriguez at
Ottlé CatherineIPSL/LSCEContributions /management of thermal and hydrological developments, evaluation and calibration (snow, inland water, soil-vegetation-atmopshere transfers, ...)catherine.ottle at
Peng ShushiPKUCH4 in wetlands / attributionspeng at
Peylin PhilippeIPSL/LSCEProject Management / Carbon and water cycle contributions / Data assimilationphilippe.peylin at
Polcher JanIPSL/LMDContributions to / management of hydrology, routing and energy balancejan.polcher at
Qiu ChunjingLSCEModeling of peatlands hydrology, peatlands C decomposition and accumulation, peatlands area extentschunjing.qiu at
Raoult Nina LSCEData assimilation with ORC, currently focusing on soil moisture and will link to the carbon cycle.
nina.raoult at
Ronny LauerwaldULBRiver carbon and nutrient transportR.Lauerwald at
Salmon ElodieLSCEMethane emissions from peatland in high latitude region
elodie.salmon at
Valade AudeCIRADInclusion of traits variability in ORCHIDEE-CN-CAN for application to response of forests to droughts.aude.valade at
Viovy NicolasIPSL/LSCEGeneral contributions to Stomate and the DGVM
Nitrogen cycle integration / Forest management module
nicolas.viovy at
Vuichard NicolasIPSL/LSCEIntegration of biogeochemical developments
Assessment of impacts
Research: Impact of management of agro- systems
nicolas.vuichard at
Xiaoni Wang-FaivreLSCE/IPSLcode development and maintenance in ORCHIDEE, evaluation tool development and data processing, emulation applications to ORCHIDEE by using machine at
Yan SunLSCEPhosphorus emerging limitations yan.sun at
Ye HuangLSCESOCye.huang at
Yuan ZhangLSCE LMDDiffuse light effects / aerosols effects on vegetation-atmosphere interactionsYuan.Zhang at
Yuanyuan HuangLSCEModel calibrationyuanyuan.huang at
Yue ChaoLSCE1. Historical and future land-use change
2. Fires in the earth system
3. Carbon and Hydrological impacts on semi-arid regions.
chaoyuejoy at
Zhou XudongLMDHuman processes in ORCHIDEE’s water cyclejan.polcher at

About the ORCHIDEE project team

The Orchidee project was established across several laboratories and it is dedicated to development of the global Land Surface Model (LSM) ORCHIDEE and its use for a wide range of applications from land surface processes to climate studies. The different steps of the ORCHIDEE model/project genesis are summarized in the figure below.

The genesis of ORCHIDEE

During the 1980s, the development at the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD) of a global General Circulation Model (GCM) stimulated the development of a specific land surface model to calculate the energy and water balance of terrestrial ecosystems (Laval et al., 1981). In the early 1990s, the model was substantially refined with a description of the earth surface categorized into several biomes called PFTs (Plant Functional Types) which led to a version, named SECHIBA (Ducoudré et al., 1993). In the late 1990s and in the early 2000s, the Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (DGVM) ORCHIDEE (Krinner et al., 2005) was created, based on the coupling of SECHIBA with i) a carbon module, STOMATE describing the flow of carbon within the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum and ii) a dynamic vegetation module, inherited from the LPJ model, describing the evolution of natural vegetation with climate. Such effort was conducted between the LMD and LSCE laboratories.

Figure: History of the ORCHIDEE model development and of the project team development.
about the ORCHIDEE project team

A team to follow and coordinate the model developements

After the mid 2000s, there has been an exponential increase in the number of users and developers in several laboratories: within IPSL (LSCE, LMD, LOCEAN), outside IPSL (SISYPHE in Paris and LGGE in Grenoble) and internationally (PKU university in China, UCLM Toledo in Spain, University of Antwerp (UA) and UGhent university in Belgium). The increase of users and associated projects was accompanied by a large number of new developments. In this context, the need to merge the new model “branches” into a common version became crucial especially to address integrated scientific questions, but it also became highly challenging. The main ORCHIDEE developers/users have thus decided to reinforce the previous organisation (carried by the IPSL) and to operate as a more structured project across laboratories. This process that started at LSCE was rapidly enlarged to the IPSL and few other national and international laboratories (listed above) with the objectives to formalize communication, developments, planning and decision making around the model. The reorganisation into a new project structure has been adapted to the size and ambitions of the group. This web site summarize the foundation of this recent organization.

Gallery: Climatic impact of global-scale deforestation

Climatic impact of global-scale deforestation: radiative versus non-radiative processes

All models investigated in this study simulated a negative sensitivity for both the land and the ocean carbon cycle to future climate. However, there was still a large uncertainty on the magnitude of these sensitivities. Eight models attributed most of the changes to the land, while three attributed it to the ocean. Also, a majority of the models located the reduction of land carbon uptake in the Tropics. However, the attribution of the land sensitivity to changes in net primary productivity versus changes in respiration is still subject to debate; no consensus emerged among the models.


Europe-wide reduction in primary productivity caused by the heat and drought in 2003

This study estimates a 30 per cent reduction in gross primary productivity over Europe, which resulted in a strong anomalous net source of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere and reversed the effect of four years of net ecosystem carbon sequestration. The results suggest that productivity reduction in eastern and western Europe can be explained by rainfall deficit and extreme summer heat, respectively. The study reports that ecosystem respiration decreased together with gross primary productivity, rather than accelerating with the temperature rise.

Reference: P. Ciais, M. Reichstein, N. Viovy, A. Granier, J. Ogeé, V. Allard, M. Aubinet, N. Buchmann, C. Bernhofer, A. Carrara, F. Chevallier, N. De Noblet, A. D. Friend, P. Friedlingstein, T. Grünwald, B. Heinesch, P. Keronen, A. Knohl, G. Krinner, D. Loustau, G. Manca, G. Matteucci, F. Miglietta, J. M. Ourcival, D. Papale, K. Pilegaard, S. Rambal, G. Seufert, J. F. Soussana, M. J. Sanz, E. D. Schulze, T. Vesala and R. Valentini, 2005. Europe-wide reduction in primary productivity caused by the heat and drought in 2003. Nature, 437:529-533.



      • Bernus, Anthony, and Catherine Ottlé Modeling subgrid lake energy balance in ORCHIDEE terrestrial scheme using the FLake lake model Geoscientific Model Development , 2022, 15, 10
      • Guion, Antoine, Solène Turquety, Jan Polcher, Romain Pennel, Sophie Bastin, and Thomas Arsouze Droughts and heatwaves in the Western Mediterranean: impact on vegetation and wildfires using the coupled WRF-ORCHIDEE regional model (RegIPSL) Climate Dynamics, 2022, 58, 9
      • MacBean, N., C. Bacour, N. Raoult, V. Bastrikov, E. N. Koffi, S. Kuppel, F. Maignan et al. Quantifying and Reducing Uncertainty in Global Carbon Cycle Predictions: Lessons and Perspectives From 15 Years of Data Assimilation Studies with the ORCHIDEE Terrestrial Biosphere Model Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 2022, 36



      • Raoult, Nina, Catherine Ottlé, Philippe Peylin, Vladislav Bastrikov, and Pascal Maugis Evaluating and optimizing surface soil moisture drydowns in the ORCHIDEE land surface model at in situ locations Journal of Hydrometeorology, 2021, 22, 4
      • Sun, Yan, Daniel S. Goll, Jinfeng Chang, Philippe Ciais, Betrand Guenet, Julian Helfenstein, Yuanyuan Huang et al. Global evaluation of the nutrient-enabled version of the land surface model ORCHIDEE-CNP v1. 2 (r5986) Geoscientific Model Development, 2021, 14, 4
      • Jeong, Jina, Jonathan Barichivich, Philippe Peylin, Vanessa Haverd, Matthew Joseph McGrath, Nicolas Vuichard, Michael Neil Evans, Flurin Babst, and Sebastiaan Luyssaert Using the International Tree-Ring Data Bank (ITRDB) records as century-long benchmarks for global land-surface models Geoscientific Model Development, 2021, 14, 9
      • Petrescu, Ana Maria Roxana, Matthew J. McGrath, Robbie M. Andrew, Philippe Peylin, Glen P. Peters, Philippe Ciais, Gregoire Broquet et al. The consolidated European synthesis of CO 2 emissions and removals for the European Union and United Kingdom: 1990–2018 Earth System Science Data, 2021, 13, 5
      • Mizuochi, H., Ducharne, A., Cheruy, F., Ghattas, J., Al-Yaari, A., Wigneron, J.-P., Bastrikov, V., Peylin, P., Maignan, F., and Vuichard, N. Multivariable evaluation of land surface processes in forced and coupled modes reveals new error sources to the simulated water cycle in the IPSL (Institute Pierre Simon Laplace) climate model Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 2021, 25, 2199–2221
      • Zhang, Y., Ciais, P., Boucher, O., Maignan, F., Bastos, A., Goll, D., Lurton, T., Viovy, N., Bellouin, N. & Li, L. Disentangling the impacts of anthropogenic aerosols on terrestrial carbon cycle during 1850-2014 Earth’s Future, 2021.
      • Zhang, Y., Boucher, O., Ciais, P., Li, L., & Bellouin, N. How to reconstruct aerosol-induced diffuse radiation scenario for simulating GPP in land surface models? An evaluation of reconstruction methods with ORCHIDEE_DFv1.0_DFforc Geoscientific Model Development, 2021, 14, 2029–2039
      • Chen, X., Ciais, P., Maignan, F., Zhang, Y., Bastos, A., Bacour, C., Gentine, P., Goll, D., Fan, L., Kim, H., Li, L., Liu, L., Liu, Y., Peng, S., Tang, H., Viovy, N., Wigneron, J.P., Wu, J., Yuan, W. & Zhang, H. Vapor Pressure Deficit and Sunlight Explain Seasonality of Leaf Phenology and Photosynthesis Across Amazonian Evergreen Broadleaved Forest Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 2021, 35
      • Maignan, F., Abadie, C., Remaud, M., Kooiijmans, L. M. J., Kohonen, K.-M., Commane, R., Wehr, R., Campbell, J. E., Belviso, S., Montzka, S. A., Raoult, N., Seibt, U., Shiga, Y. P., Vuichard, N., Whelan, M. E. & Peylin, P. Carbonyl Sulfide: Comparing a Mechanistic Representation of the Vegetation Uptake in a Land Surface Model and the Leaf Relative Uptake Biogeosciences, 2021, 18, 2917–2955
      • Qiu, C., Ciais, P., Zhu, D., Guenet, B., Peng, S., Petrescu, A.M.R., Lauerwald, R., Makowski, D., Gallego-Sala, A. V., Charman, D.J. & Brewer, S.C. Large historical carbon emissions from cultivated northern peatlands Science Advances, 2021, 7


      • Tafasca, Salma, Agnès Ducharne, and Christian Valentin Weak sensitivity of the terrestrial water budget to global soil texture maps in the ORCHIDEE land surface model Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 2020, 24, 7
      • Macbean, Natasha, Russell L. Scott, Joel A. Biederman, Catherine Ottlé, Nicolas Vuichard, Agnès Ducharne, Thomas Kolb, Sabina Dore, Marcy Litvak, and David JP Moore Testing water fluxes and storage from two hydrology configurations within the ORCHIDEE land surface model across US semi-arid sites Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 2020, 24, 11
      • Zhang, Yuan, Ana Bastos, Fabienne Maignan, Daniel Goll, Olivier Boucher, Laurent Li, Alessandro Cescatti et al. Modeling the impacts of diffuse light fraction on photosynthesis in ORCHIDEE (v5453) land surface model Geoscientific Model Development, 2020, 13, 11
      • Schrapffer, Anthony, Anna Sörensson, Jan Polcher, and Lluís Fita Benefits of representing floodplains in a Land Surface Model: Pantanal simulated with ORCHIDEE CMIP6 version Climate Dynamics, 2020, 55
      • Yin, Z., X. H. Wang, C. Ottlé, F. Zhou, M. Guimberteau, J. Polcher, S. S. Peng et al. Improvement of the irrigation scheme in the ORCHIDEE land surface model and impacts of irrigation on regional water budgets over China Journal of advances in modeling earth systems, 2020, 12, 4
      • Raoult, N., Ottlé, C., Peylin, P., Bastrikov, V., and Maugis, P. Evaluating and Optimising Surface Soil Moisture drydowns in the ORCHIDEE land-surface model Journal of Hydrometeorology, 2020, 22, 4
      • Boucher O, Servonnat J, and al. Presentation and evaluation of the IPSL-CM6A-LR climate model Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 2020, 12
      • Bowring, S. P. K., Lauerwald, R., Guenet, B., Zhu, D., Guimberteau, M., Regnier, P., Tootchi, A., Ducharne, A., and Ciais, P. ORCHIDEE MICT-LEAK (r5459), a global model for the production, transport, and transformation of dissolved organic carbon from Arctic permafrost regions – Part 2: Model evaluation over the Lena River basin Geosci. Model Dev., 2020, 13, 507–520
      • Vuichard, N., Messina, P., Luyssaert, S., Guenet, B., Zaehle, S., Ghattas, J., Bastrikov, V. and Peylin, P. Accounting for carbon and nitrogen interactions in the global terrestrial ecosystem model ORCHIDEE (trunk version, rev 4999): multi-scale evaluation of gross primary production Geosci. Model Dev., 2020, 12, 11
      • Ciais, P., Yao, Y., Gasser, T., Baccini, A., Wang, Y., Lauerwald, R., Peng, S., Bastos, A., Li, W., Raymond, P. A., Canadell, J. G., Peters, G. P., Andres, R. J., Chang, J., Yue, C., Dolman, A. J., Haverd, V., Hartmann, J., Laruelle, G., Konings, A. G., King, A. W., Liu, Y., Luyssaert, S., Maignan, F., Patra, P. K., Peregon, A., Regnier, P., Pongratz, J., Poulter, B., Shvidenko, A., Valentini, R., Wang, R., Broquet, G., Yin, Y., Zscheischler, J., Guenet, B., Goll, D. S., Ballantyne, A.-P., Yang, H., Qiu, C. & Zhu, D. Empirical estimates of regional carbon budgets imply reduced global soil heterotrophic respiration National Science Review, 2020



      • Vuichard, Nicolas, Palmira Messina, Sebastiaan Luyssaert, Bertrand Guenet, Sönke Zaehle, Josefine Ghattas, Vladislav Bastrikov, and Philippe Peylin Accounting for carbon and nitrogen interactions in the global terrestrial ecosystem model ORCHIDEE (trunk version, rev 4999): multi-scale evaluation of gross primary production Geoscientific Model Development, 2019, 12, 11
      • Druel, Arsène, Philippe Ciais, Gerhard Krinner, and Philippe Peylin Modeling the vegetation dynamics of northern shrubs and mosses in the ORCHIDEE land surface model Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 2019, 11, 7
      • Qiu, Chunjing, Dan Zhu, Philippe Ciais, Bertrand Guenet, Shushi Peng, Gerhard Krinner, Ardalan Tootchi, Agnès Ducharne, and Adam Hastie Modelling northern peatland area and carbon dynamics since the Holocene with the ORCHIDEE-PEAT land surface model (SVN r5488) Geoscientific Model Development, 2019, 12, 7
      • Bowring, Simon PK, Ronny Lauerwald, Bertrand Guenet, Dan Zhu, Matthieu Guimberteau, Ardalan Tootchi, Agnès Ducharne, and Philippe Ciais ORCHIDEE MICT-LEAK (r5459), a global model for the production, transport, and transformation of dissolved organic carbon from Arctic permafrost regions–Part 1: Rationale, model description, and simulation protocol Geoscientific Model Development, 2019, 12,8
      • Camino‐Serrano, Marta, Marwa Tifafi, Jérôme Balesdent, Christine Hatté, Josep Peñuelas, Sophie Cornu, and Bertrand Guenet Including stable carbon isotopes to evaluate the dynamics of soil carbon in the land‐surface model ORCHIDEE Journal of advances in modeling earth systems, 2019, 11, 11
      • Tootchi, A., Jost, A., and Ducharne, A. Multi-source global wetland maps combining surface water imagery and groundwater constraints Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 2019 11, 189–220
      • Zhu, D., Ciais, P., Krinner, G., Maignan, F., Jornet-Puig, A. & Hugelius, G. Controls of soil organic matter on permafrost thermal and carbon dynamics Nature Communications, 2019, 10, 1
      • Peaucelle, M., Ciais, P., Maignan, F., Nicolas, M., Cecchini, S. & Viovy, N. Calibrating a new coniferous phenology model in the global model ORCHIDEE: impacts on leaf area index dynamic and carbon fluxes Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 2019, 266, 97-108,
      • Bacour, C., Maignan, F., MacBean, N., Porcar-Castell, A., Flexas, J., Frankenberg, C., Peylin, P., Chevallier F., Vuichard, N. & Bastrikov, V. Improving estimates of Gross Primary Productivity by assimilating solar-induced fluorescence satellite retrievals in a terrestrial biosphere model using a process-based SIF model Journal of Geophysical Research – Biogeosciences, 2019
      • Peaucelle M, Bacour C, Ciais P, et al. Covariations between plant functional traits emerge from constraining parameterization of a terrestrial biosphere model Global Ecol Biogeogr., 2019, 00, 1–15



      • Camino-Serrano, M.; Guenet, B.; Luyssaert, S.; Ciais, P.; Bastrikov, V.; De Vos, B.; Gielen, B.; Gleixner, G.; Jornet-Puig, A.; Kaiser, K.; Kothawala, D.; Lauerwald, R.; Penuelas, J.; Schrumpf, M.; Vicca, S.; Vuichard, N.; Walmsley, D. & Janssens, I. A. ORCHIDEE-SOM: modeling soil organic carbon (SOC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) dynamics along vertical soil profiles in Europe Geosci. Model Dev., 2018, 11, 937
      • Guimberteau, M.; Zhu, D.; Maignan, F.; Huang, Y.; Chao, Y.; Dantec-Nédélec, S.; Ottlé, C.; Jornet-Puig, A.; Bastos, A.; Laurent, P.; Goll, D.; Bowring, S.; Chang, J.; Guenet, B.; Tifafi, M.; Peng, S.; Krinner, G.; Ducharne, A.; Wang, F.; Wang, T.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Yin, Z.; Lauerwald, R.; Joetzjer, E.; Qiu, C.; Kim, H. & Ciais, P. ORCHIDEE-MICT (v8.4.1), a land surface model for the high latitudes: model description and validation Geosci. Model Dev., 2018, 11, 121-163
      • Qiu, C.; Zhu, D.; Ciais, P.; Guenet, B.; Krinner, G.; Peng, S.; Aurela, M.; Bernhofer, C.; Brümmer, C.; Bret-Harte, S.; Chu, H.; Chen, J.; Desai, A. R.; Dušek, J.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Fortuniak, K.; Flanagan, L. B.; Friborg, T.; Grygoruk, M.; Gogo, S.; Grünwald, T.; Hansen, B. U.; Holl, D.; Humphreys, E.; Hurkuck, M.; Kiely, G.; Klatt, J.; Kutzbach, L.; Largeron, C.; Laggoun-Défarge, F.; Lund, M.; Lafleur, P. M.; Li, X.; Mammarella, I.; Merbold, L.; Nilsson, M. B.; Olejnik, J.; Ottosson-Löfvenius, M.; Oechel, W.; Parmentier, F.-J. W.; Peichl, M.; Pirk, N.; Peltola, O.; Pawlak, W.; Rasse, D.; Rinne, J.; Shaver, G.; Schmid, H. P.; Sottocornola, M.; Steinbrecher, R.; Sachs, T.; Urbaniak, M.; Zona, D. & Ziemblinska, K. ORCHIDEE-PEAT (revision 4596), a model for northern peatland CO 2, water, and energy fluxes on daily to annual scales Geosci. Model Dev., 2018, 11, 497-519
      • Raoult, Nina, Bertrand Delorme, Catherine Ottlé, Philippe Peylin, Vladislav Bastrikov, Pascal Maugis, and Jan PolcherConfronting soil moisture dynamics from the ORCHIDEE land surface model with the ESA-CCI product: Perspectives for data assimilationRemote Sensing, 2018, 10, 11
      • Bastrikov, Vladislav, Natasha MacBean, Cédric Bacour, Diego Santaren, Sylvain Kuppel, and Philippe Peylin Land surface model parameter optimisation using in situ flux data: comparison of gradient-based versus random search algorithms (a case study using ORCHIDEE v1. 9.5. 2) Geosci. Model Dev., 2018, 11, 12
      • Nguyen-Quang, Trung, Jan Polcher, Agnès Ducharne, Thomas Arsouze, Xudong Zhou, Ana Schneider, and Lluís Fita ORCHIDEE-ROUTING: revising the river routing scheme using a high-resolution hydrological databaseGeosci. Model Dev., 2018, 11, 12



      • Barella-Ortiz, A.; Polcher, J.; de Rosnay, P.; Piles, M. & Gelati, E. Comparison of measured brightness temperatures from SMOS with modelled ones from ORCHIDEE and H-TESSEL over the Iberian Peninsula Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Dis., Copernicus GmbH, 2017, 21, 357-375
      • Dantec-Nédélec, S.; Ottlé, C.; Wang, T.; Guglielmo, F.; Maignan, F.; Delbart, N.; Valdayskikh, V.; Radchenko, T.; Nekrasova, O.; Zakharov, V. and Jouzel J. Testing the capability of ORCHIDEE land surface model to simulate arctic ecosystems: Sensitivity analysis and site-level model calibration J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 2017, 9, 1212-1230
      • Druel, A.; Peylin, P.; Krinner, G.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.; Peregon, A.; Bastrikov, V.; Kosykh, N. & Mironycheva-Tokareva, N. Towards a more detailed representation of high-latitude vegetation in the global land surface model ORCHIDEE (ORC-HL-VEGv1.0) Geosci. Model Dev., 2017, 10, 4693-4722
      • Getirana A, Boone A, Peugeot C, and the ALMIP2 working group (2017). Streamflows over a West African basin from the ALMIP-2 model ensemble. J. Hydrometeorology, 18, 1831-1845, doi:10.1175/JHM-D-16-0233.1
      • Goll, D. S.; Vuichard, N.; Maignan, F.; Jornet-Puig, A.; Sardans, J.; Violette, A.; Peng, S.; Sun, Y.; Kvakic, M.; Guimberteau, M.; Guenet, B.; Zaehle, S.; Penuelas, J.; Janssens, I. A. & Ciais, P. A representation of the phosphorus cycle for ORCHIDEE (revision 4520) Geosci. Model Dev., Copernicus, 2017, 10, 3745-3770
      • Grippa, Kergoat, Boone, Peugeot, Demarty, Cappelaere, Gal, Hiernaux, Mougin, Ducharne, Dutra, Anderson, Hain, and the ALMIP2 working group (2017). Modelling surface runoff and water fluxes over contrasted soils in pastoral Sahel: evaluation of the ALMIP2 land surface models over the Gourma region in Mali. J. Hydrometeorology, 18, 1847- 1866, doi:10.1175/JHM-D-16-0170.1
      • Guimberteau M., Ciais P., Ducharne A., Boisier J. P., Aguiar A. P., Biemans H., De Deurwaerder H., Galbraith D., Kruijt B., Langerwisch F., Poveda G., Rammig A., Rodriguez D. A., Tejada G., Thonicke K., Von Randow C., Von Randow R. C. S., Zhang K. and Verbeeck H. (2017): Impacts of future deforestation and climate change on the hydrology of the Amazon basin: a multi-model analysis with a new set of land-cover change scenarios, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1455-1475, doi:10.5194/hess-21-1455-2017
      • Largeron, C.; Krinner, G.; Ciais, P. & Brutel-Vuilmet, C. Implementing northern peatlands in a global land surface model: description and evaluation in the ORCHIDEE high latitude version model (ORC-HL-PEAT) Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 2017, 1-26Lauerwald R., Regnier P., Camino-Serrano M., Guenet B., Guimberteau M., Ducharne A., Polcher J., and Ciais P. (2017): ORCHILEAK (revision 3875): a new model branch to simulate carbon transfers along the terrestrial-aquatic continuum of the Amazon basin, Geosci. Model Dev., 10.5194/gmd-10-3821-2017
      • Wang F, Ducharne A, Cheruy F, Lo MH, Grandpeix JL (2017). Impact of a shallow groundwater table on the global water cycle in the IPSL land-atmosphere coupled model, Climate Dynamics, doi:10.1007/s00382-017-3820-9
      • Zhao F., Veldkamp T., Frieler K., Schewe, J., Ostberg S., Willner S., Schauberger B., Gosling S., Müller Schmied H., Portmann F., Leng G., Huang M., Liu X., Tang Q., Hanasaki N., Biemans H., Gerten D., Satoh Y., Pokhrel Y., Stacke T., Ciais P., Ducharne A., Guimberteau M., Wada Y., Kim H. and Yamazaki D. The critical role of the routing scheme in simulating peak river discharge in global hydrological models, Environ. Res. Lett., 12 (2017) 075003, doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/aa7250



      • Chen, Y.; Ryder, J.; Bastrikov, V.; McGrath, M. J.; Naudts, K.; Otto, J.; Ottlé, C.; Peylin, P.; Polcher, J.; Valade, A.; Black, A.; Elbers, J. A.; Moors, E.; Foken, T.; van Gorsel, E.; Haverd, V.; Heinesch, B.; Tiedemann, F.; Knohl, A.; Launiainen, S.; Loustau, D.; Ogée, J.; Vessala, T. & Luyssaert, S.  Evaluating the performance of land surface model ORCHIDEE-CAN v1. 0 on water and energy flux estimation with a single-and multi-layer energy budget scheme Geosci. Model Dev., 2016, 9, 2951-2972
      • Guenet, B.; Moyano, F. E.; Peylin, P.; Ciais, P. & Janssens, I. A. Towards a representation of priming on soil carbon decomposition in the global land biosphere model ORCHIDEE (version 1.9. 5.2) Geosci. Model Dev., 2016, 9, 841-855
      • Johnson M.O., Galbraith D., Gloor E., De Deurwaerder H., Guimberteau M., Rammig A., Thonicke K., Verbeeck H., von Randow C., Brienen R.J.W., Feldpausch T.R., Lopez Gonzalez G., Monteagudo A., Phillips O.L., Quesada C.A., Christoffersen B., Ciais P., Gilvan S., Kruijt B., Meir P., Moorcroft P., Zhang K., Alvarez E.A., Alves de Oliveira A., Amaral I., Andrade A., Aragao L.E.O.C., Araujo-Murakami A., Arets E.J.M.M., Arroyo L., Aymard G.A., Baraloto C., Barroso J., Bonal D., Boot R., Camargo J., Chave J., Cogollo A., Cornejo Valverde F., da Costa L., di Fiore A., Higuchi N., Honorio E., Killeen T.J., Laurance S.G., Laurance W.F., Licona J., Lovejoy T., Malhi Y., Marimon B., Marimon Junior B., Mendoza C., Neill D.A., Pardo G., Peña-Claros M., Pitman N.C.A., Poorter L., Prieto A., Ramirez-Angulo H., Roopsind A., Rudas A., Salomao R.P., Silveira M., Stropp J., ter Steege H., Terborgh J., Thomas R., Toledo M., Torres-Lezama A., van der Heijden G.M.F., Vasquez R., Vieira I., Vilanova E., Vos V.A. and Baker T.R. (2016): Variation in stem mortality rates determines patterns of aboveground biomass in Amazonian forests: implications for dynamic global vegetation models, Glob. Change Biol., 22, 3996-4013, doi: 10.1111/gcb.13315
      • McGrath, M. J.; Ryder, J.; Pinty, B.; Otto, J.; Naudts, K.; Valade, A.; Chen, Y.; Weedon, J. & Luyssaert, S. A multi-level canopy radiative transfer scheme for ORCHIDEE (SVN r2566), based on a domain-averaged structure factor Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 2016
      • Polcher, J.; Piles, M.; Gelati, E.; Barella-Ortiz, A. & Tello, M. Comparing surface-soil moisture from the SMOS mission and the ORCHIDEE land-surface model over the Iberian Peninsula Remote Sens. Environ., Elsevier, 2016, 174, 69-81
      • Risi, C.; Ogee, J.; Bony, S.; Bariac, T.; Yaseef, N. R.; Wingate, L.; Welker, J.; Knohl, A.; Besson, C. K.; Leclerc, M.; Zhang, G.; Buchmann, N.; Santrucek, J.; Hronkova, M.; David, T.; Peylin, P. & Guglielmo, F.  The water isotopic version of the land-surface model ORCHIDEE: Implementation, evaluation, sensitivity to hydrological parameters Hydrol Current Res, 2016, 7, 2
      • Ryder, J.; Polcher, J.; Peylin, P.; Ottlé, C.; Chen, Y.; Gorsel, E. v.; Haverd, V.; McGrath, M.; Naudts, K.; Otto, J.; Valade, A. & Luyssaert, S. A multi-layer land surface energy budget model for implicit coupling with global atmospheric simulations Geosci. Model Dev., Copernicus GmbH, 2016, 9, 223-245
      • Wu, X.; Vuichard, N.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.; de Noblet-Ducoudré, N.; Wang, X.; Magliulo, V.; Wattenbach, M.; Vitale, L.; Tommasi, P. D.; Moors, E. J.; Jans, W.; Elbers, J.; Ceschia, E.; Tallec, T.; Bernhofer, C.; Grünwald, T.; Moureaux, C.; Manise, T.; Ligne, A.; Cellier, P.; Loubet, B.; Larmanou, E. & Ripoche, D. ORCHIDEE-CROP (v0), a new process based Agro-Land Surface Model: model description and evaluation over Europe Geosci. Model Dev., 2016, 9, 857-873



      • Naudts, K.; Ryder, J.; McGrath, M. J.; Otto, J.; Chen, Y.; Valade, A.; Bellasen, V.; Berhongaray, G.; Bönisch, G.; Campioli, M.; Ghattas, J.; Groote, T. D.; Haverd, V.; Kattge, J.; MacBean, N.; Maignan, F.; Merilä, P.; Penuelas, J.; Peylin, P.; Pinty, B.; Pretzsch, H.; Schulze, E. D.; Solyga, D.; Vuichard, N.; Yan, Y. & Luyssaert, S. A vertically discretised canopy description for ORCHIDEE (SVN r2290) and the modifications to the energy, water and carbon fluxes Geosci. Model Dev., 2015, 7, 8565-8647
      • Yang H., Piao S., Zeng Z., Ciais P., Yin Y., Friedlingstein P., Sitch S., Ahlström A., Guimberteau M., Huntingford C., Levis S., Levy P., Huang M., Li Y., Li X., Lomas M., Peylin P., Poulter B., Viovy N., Zaehle S., Zeng N., Zhao F. and Wang L. (2015): Multi-criteria evaluation of discharge simulation in Dynamic Global Vegetation Models, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 120, 7488-7505, doi:10.1002/2015JD023129
      • Yue, C.; Ciais, P.; Cadule, P.; Thonicke, K. & Van Leeuwen, T. Modelling the role of fires in the terrestrial carbon balance by incorporating SPITFIRE into the global vegetation model ORCHIDEE–Part 2: Carbon emissions and the role of fires in the global carbon balance Geosci. Model Dev., 2015, 8, 1321-1338
      • Zhu, D.; Peng, S. S.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.; Druel, A.; Kageyama, M.; Krinner, G.; Peylin, P.; Ottlé, C.; Piao, S. L.; Poulter, B.; Schepaschenko, D. & Shvidenko, A. Improving the dynamics of northern vegetation in the ORCHIDEE ecosystem model Geosci. Model Dev., 2015, 8, 2263-2283



      • Getirana A., Dutra E., Guimberteau M., Kam J., Li H.-Y., Decharme B., Zhang Z., Ducharne A., Boone A., Balsamo G., Rodell M., Toure A. M., Xue Y., Peters-Lidard C., Kumar S., Arsenault K., Drapeau G., Leung L. R., Ronchail J. and Sheffield J. (2014): Water Balance in the Amazon Basin from a Land Surface Model Ensemble, J. Hydrometeorol., 15, 2586-2614, doi:10.1175/JHM-D-14-0068.1
      • Guimberteau M., Ducharne A., Ciais P., Boisier J.P., Peng S., De Weirdt M. and Verbeeck H. (2014): Testing conceptual and physically based soil hydrology schemes against observations for the Amazon Basin, Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 1115-1136, doi:10.5194/gmd-7-1115-2014, 2014
      • Traore, A. K.; Ciais, P.; Vuichard, N.; Poulter, B.; Viovy, N.; Guimberteau, M.; Jung, M.; Myneni, R. & Fisher, J. B. Evaluation of the ORCHIDEE ecosystem model over Africa against 25 years of satellite-based water and carbon measurements J. Geophys. Res.-Biogeo., Wiley-Blackwell, 2014, 119, 1554-1575
      • Yue, C.; Ciais, P.; Cadule, P.; Thonicke, K.; Archibald, S.; Poulter, B.; Hao, W. M.; Hantson, S.; Mouillot, F.; Friedlingstein, P.; Maignan, F. & Viovy, N. Modelling the role of fires in the terrestrial carbon balance by incorporating SPITFIRE into the global vegetation model ORCHIDEE–Part 1: simulating historical global burned area and fire regimes Geosci. Model Dev., 2014, 7, 2747-2767



      • Barella-Ortiz, A.; Polcher, J.; Tuzet, A. & Laval, K. Potential evaporation estimation through an unstressed surface-energy balance and its sensitivity to climate change Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sc., 2013, 17, 4625-4639
      • Berg A., De Noblet-Ducoudré N., Sultan B., Lengaigne M. and Guimberteau M. (2013): Projections of climate change impacts on potential C4 crop productivity over tropical regions, Agric. For. Meteorol., 170 (2013) 89-102, doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2011.12.003
      • Campoy A, Ducharne A, Cheruy F, Hourdin F, Polcher J, Dupont JC (2013). Response of land surface fluxes and precipitation to different soil bottom hydrological conditions in a general circulation model. JGR-Atmospheres, 118, 10,725–10,739, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50627.
      • Chang, J. F.; Viovy, N.; Vuichard, N.; Ciais, P.; Wang, T.; Cozic, A.; Lardy, R.; Graux, A.-I.; Klumpp, K.; Martin, R. & Soussana, J.-F. Incorporating grassland management in ORCHIDEE: model description and evaluation at 11 eddy-covariance sites in Europe Geosci. Model Dev., 2013, 6, 2165-2181
      • Cheruy F, Campoy A,  Dupont J-C, Ducharne A, Hourdin F, Haeffelin M, Chiriaco M, Idelkadi A (2013). Combined influence of atmospheric physics and soil hydrology on the simulated meteorology at the SIRTA atmospheric observatory. Climate Dynamics, 40, 2251-2269, doi:10.1007/s00382-012-1469-y.
      • Guenet, B.; Moyano, F.; Vuichard, N.; Kirk, G.; Bellamy, P.; Zaehle, S. & Ciais, P. Can we model observed soil carbon changes from a dense inventory? A case study over England and Wales using three versions of the ORCHIDEE ecosystem model (AR5, AR5-PRIM and O-CN) Geosci. Model Dev., 2013, 6, 2153-2163
      • Guimberteau M., Ronchail J., Espinoza J. C., Lengaigne M., Sultan B., Polcher J., Drapeau G., Guyot J.-L., Ducharne A. and Ciais P. (2013): Future changes in precipitation and impacts on extreme streamflow over Amazonian sub-basins, Environ. Res. Lett., 8 014035, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/1/014035
      • Seneviratne S, Wilhelm M, Stanelle T, van den Hurk B, Hagemann S, Berg A, Cheruy F, Higgins ME, Meier A, Brovkin V, Claussen M, Ducharne A, Dufresne JL, Findell K, Ghattas J, Lawrence DM, Malyshev S, Rumukainen M, Smith B (2013). Impact of soil moisture-climate feedbacks on CMIP5 projections: First results from the GLACE-CMIP5 experiment. GRL,40, 5212–5217, doi:10.1002/grl.50956.
      • Sterling S, Ducharne A, Polcher J (2013). The impact of global land-cover change on the terrestrial water cycle. Nature Climate Change, 3, 385-390, doi:10.1038/nclimate1690.
      • Wang, T.; Ottlé, C.; Boone, A.; Ciais, P.; Brun, E.; Morin, S.; Krinner, G.; Piao, S. & Peng, S. Evaluation of an improved intermediate complexity snow scheme in the ORCHIDEE land surface model J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 2013, 118, 6064-6079



      • De Weirdt, M., H. Verbeeck, F. Maignan, P. Peylin, B. Poulter, D. Bonal, P. Ciais, and K. Steppe (2012), Seasonal leaf dynamics for tropical evergreen forests in a process-based global ecosystem model, Geoscientific Model Development, 5(5), 1091-1108 (link)
      • Gouttevin, I., Krinner, G., Ciais, P., Polcher, J., and Legout, C.: Multi-scale validation of a new soil freezing scheme for a land-surface model with physically-based hydrology, Cryosphere, 6, 407-430, DOI 10.5194/tc-6-407-2012 (link)
      • Gouttevin, I., Menegoz, M., Domine, F., Krinner, G., Koven, C., Ciais, P., Tarnocai, C., and Boike, J.: How the insulating properties of snow affect soil carbon distribution in the continental Pan-Arctic area, Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 117, Artn G02020, Doi 10.1029/2011jg001916 (link)
      • Guimberteau, M., Drapeau, G., Ronchail, J., Sultan, B., Polcher, J., Martinez, J. M., Prigent, C., Guyot, J. L., Cochonneau, G., Espinoza, J. C., Filizola, N., Fraizy, P., Lavado, W., De Oliveira, E., Pombosa, R., Noriega, L., and Vauchel, P.: Discharge simulation in the sub-basins of the Amazon using ORCHIDEE forced by new datasets, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 16, 911-935, DOI 10.5194/hess-16-911-2012 (link)
      • Kuppel, S., Peylin, P., Chevallier, F., Bacour, C., Maignan, F., and Richardson, A. D.: Constraining a global ecosystem model with multi-site eddy-covariance data, Biogeosciences, 9, 3757-3776, DOI 10.5194/bg-9-3757-2012 (link)
      • Lafont, S., Zhao, Y., Calvet, J. C., Peylin, P., Ciais, P., Maignan, F., and Weiss, M.: Modelling LAI, surface water and Carbon fluxes at high-resolution over France: Comparison of ISBA-A-gs and ORCHIDEE, Biogeosciences, 9, 439-456, DOI 10.5194/bg-9-439-2012 (link)
      • Luyssaert, S., Abril, G., Andres, R., Bastviken, D., Bellassen, V., Bergamaschi, P., Bousquet, P., Chevallier, F., Ciais, P., Corazza, M., Dechow, R., Erb, K.-H., Etiope, G., Fortems-Cheiney, a., Grassi, G., Hartmann, J., Jung, M., Lathière, J., Lohila, a., Mayorga, E., Moosdorf, N., Njakou, D. S., Otto, J., Papale, D., Peters, W., Peylin, P., Raymond, P., Rödenbeck, C., Saarnio, S., Schulze, E.-D., Szopa, S., Thompson, R., Verkerk, P. J., Vuichard, N., Wang, R., Wattenbach, M., and Zaehle, S.: The European land and inland water CO2, CO, CH4 and N2O balance between 2001 and 2005, Biogeosciences, 9, 3357-3380, 10.5194/bg-9-3357-2012 (link)
      • Ringeval, B., Decharme, B., Piao, S. L., Ciais, P., Papa, F., de Noblet-Ducoudre, N., Prigent, C., Friedlingstein, P., Gouttevin, I., Koven, C., and Ducharne, A.: Modelling sub-grid wetland in the ORCHIDEE global land surface model: Evaluation against river discharges and remotely sensed data, Geoscientific Model Development, 5, 941-962, DOI 10.5194/gmd-5-941-2012 (link)
      • Zhao, Y., Ciais, P., Peylin, P., Viovy, N., Longdoz, B., Bonnefond, J. M., Rambal, S., Klumpp, K., Olioso, A., Cellier, P., Maignan, F., Eglin, T., and Calvet, J. C.: How errors on meteorological variables impact simulated ecosystem fluxes: A case study for six French sites, Biogeosciences, 9, 2537-2564, DOI 10.5194/bg-9-2537-2012 (link)
      • Guimberteau M., Perrier A., Laval K. and Polcher J. (2012): A comprehensive approach to analyze discrepancies between land surface models and in-situ measurements: a case study over the US and Illinois with SECHIBA forced by NLDAS, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 3973-3988, doi:10.5194/hess-16-3973-2012
      • Guimberteau M., Laval K., Perrier A. and Polcher J. (2012): Global effect of irrigation and its impact on the onset of the Indian summer monsoon, Clim. Dyn., 39:1329-1348, doi:10.1007/s00382-011-1252-5



      • Anav, A., Menut, L., Khvorostyanov, D., and Viovy, N.: Impact of tropospheric Ozone on the Euro-Mediterranean vegetation, Global Change Biology, 17, 2342-2359, DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2010.02387.x (link)
      • Bellassen, V., le Maire, G., Guin, O., Dhote, J. F., Ciais, P., and Viovy, N.: Modelling forest management within a global vegetation model-part 2: Model validation from a tree to a continental scale, Ecological Modelling, 222, 57-75, DOI 10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2010.08.038 (link)
      • Bellassen, V., Viovy, N., Luyssaert, S., le Maire, G., Schelhaas, M. J., and Ciais, P.: Reconstruction and attribution of the Carbon sink of European forests between 1950 and 2000, Global Change Biology, 17, 3274-3292, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02476.x (link)
      • Koven, C. D., Ringeval, B., Friedlingstein, P., Ciais, P., Cadule, P., Khvorostyanov, D., Krinner, G., and Tarnocai, C.: Permafrost Carbon-climate feedbacks accelerate global warming, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108, 14769-14774, DOI 10.1073/pnas.1103910108 (link)
      • Maignan, F., Bréon, F.M., Chevallier, F., Viovy, N., Ciais, P., Trules, J. & Mancip, M. (2011). Evaluation of a Global Vegetation Model using time series of satellite vegetation indices. Geoscientific Model Development, 4, 1103–1114, doi:10.5194/gmd-4-1103-2011 (link)
      • Verbeeck, H., Peylin, P., Bacour, C., Bonal, D., Steppe, K., and Ciais, P.: Seasonal patterns of CO2 fluxes in Amazon forests: Fusion of eddy covariance data and the ORCHIDEE model, Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 116, Artn G02018, Doi 10.1029/2010jg001544 (link)
      • Woillez, M. N., Kageyama, M., Krinner, G., de Noblet-Ducoudre, N., Viovy, N., and Mancip, M.: Impact of CO2 and climate on the last glacial maximum vegetation: Results from the ORCHIDEE/IPSL models, Climate of the Past, 7, 557-577, DOI 10.5194/cp-7-557-2011 (link)


      • Alkama, R., Kageyama, M., and Ramstein, G.: Relative contributions of climate change, stomatal closure, and leaf area index changes to 20th and 21st century runoff change: A modelling approach using the organizing Carbon and Hydrology in dynamic ecosystems (ORCHIDEE) land surface model, Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 115, Artn D17112, Doi 10.1029/2009jd013408 (link)
      • Bellassen, V., Le Maire, G., Dhote, J. F., Ciais, P., and Viovy, N.: Modelling forest management within a global vegetation model part 1: Model structure and general behaviour, Ecological Modelling, 221, 2458-2474, DOI 10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2010.07.008 (link)
      • Cadule, P., Friedlingstein, P., Bopp, L., Sitch, S., Jones, C. D., Ciais, P., Piao, S. L., and Peylin, P.: Benchmarking coupled climate-carbon models against long-term atmospheric CO2 measurements, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 24, Doi 10.1029/2009gb003556 (link)
      • Ciais, P., Wattenbach, M., Vuichard, N., Smith, P. C., Piao, S. L., Don, A., Luyssaert, S., Janssens, I. A., Bondeau, A., Dechow, R., Leip, A., Beer, C., van der Werf, G. R., Gervois, S., Van Oost, K., Tomelleri, E., Freibauer, A., Schulze, E. D., and Team, C.-I. S. t.: The European Carbon balance. Part 2: Croplands, Global Change Biology, 16, 1409-1428, 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.02055.x (link)
      • Delbart, N., Ciais, P., Chave, J., Viovy, N., Malhi, Y., and Le Toan, T.: Mortality as a key driver of the spatial distribution of above-ground biomass in Amazonian forest: Results from a Dynamic Vegetation Model, Biogeosciences, 7, 3027-3039, DOI 10.5194/bg-7-3027-2010 (link)
      • Luyssaert, S., Ciais, P., Piao, S. L., Schulze, E. D., Jung, M., Zaehle, S., Schelhaas, M. J., Reichstein, M., Churkina, G., Papale, D., Abril, G., Beer, C., Grace, J., Loustau, D., Matteucci, G., Magnani, F., Nabuurs, G. J., Verbeeck, H., Sulkava, M., van der Werf, G. R., Janssens, I. A., and Team, C.-I. S. t.: The European Carbon balance. Part 3: Forests, Global Change Biology, 16, 1429-1450, 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.02056.x (link)
      • Ringeval, B., de Noblet-Ducoudre, N., Ciais, P., Bousquet, P., Prigent, C., Papa, F., and Rossow, W. B.: An attempt to quantify the impact of changes in wetland extent on Methane emissions on the seasonal and interannual time scales, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 24, Artn Gb2003, Doi 10.1029/2008gb003354 (link)
      • Risi, C., Bony, S., Vimeux, F., Frankenberg, C., Noone, D., and Worden, J.: Understanding the Sahelian water budget through the isotopic composition of water vapor and precipitation, Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 115, Artn D24110, Doi 10.1029/2010jd014690 (link)
      • Smith, P. C., Ciais, P., Peylin, P., De Noblet-Ducoudre, N., Viovy, N., Meurdesoif, Y., and Bondeau, A.: European-wide simulations of croplands using an improved terrestrial biosphere model: 2. Interannual yields and anomalous CO2 fluxes in 2003, Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 115, Doi 10.1029/2009jg001041 (link)
      • Tan, K., Ciais, P., Piao, S. L., Wu, X. P., Tang, Y. H., Vuichard, N., Liang, S., and Fang, J. Y.: Application of the ORCHIDEE global vegetation model to evaluate biomass and soil Carbon stocks of Qinghai-Tibetan grasslands, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 24, Artn Gb1013, Doi 10.1029/2009gb003530 (link)
      • Zaehle, S., and Friend, A. D.: Carbon and nitrogen cycle dynamics in the O-CN land surface model: 1. Model description, site-scale evaluation, and sensitivity to parameter estimates, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 24, Artn Gb1005, Doi 10.1029/2009gb003521 (link)
      • Zaehle, S., Friend, A. D., Friedlingstein, P., Dentener, F., Peylin, P., and Schulz, M.: Carbon and Nitrogen cycle dynamics in the O-CN land surface model: 2. Role of the nitrogen cycle in the historical terrestrial Carbon balance, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 24, Doi 10.1029/2009gb003522 (link)



      • Colleoni, F., Krinner, G., and Jakobsson, M.: Sensitivity of the Late Saalian (140 kyrs BP) and LGM (21 kyrs BP) Eurasian ice sheet surface mass balance to vegetation feedbacks, Geophysical Research Letters, 36, L08704, 10.1029/2009gl037200 (link)
      • Jost, A., Fauquette, S., Kageyama, M., Krinner, G., Ramstein, G., Sue, J. P., and Violette, S.: High resolution climate and vegetation simulations of the late Pliocene, a model-data comparison over western Europe and the Mediterranean region, Climate of the Past, 5, 585-606 (link)
      • Koven, C., Friedlingstein, P., Ciais, P., Khvorostyanov, D., Krinner, G., and Tarnocai, C.: On the formation of high-latitude soil carbon stocks: Effects of cryoturbation and insulation by organic matter in a land surface model, Geophysical Research Letters, 36, L21501, 10.1029/2009gl040150 (link)
      • Piao, S. L., Fang, J. Y., Ciais, P., Peylin, P., Huang, Y., Sitch, S., and Wang, T.: The Carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems in China, Nature, 458, 1009-U1082, Doi 10.1038/Nature07944 (link)
      • Piao, S. L., Friedlingstein, P., Ciais, P., Peylin, P., Zhu, B., and Reichstein, M.: Footprint of temperature changes in the temperate and boreal forest carbon balance, Geophysical Research Letters, 36, Artn L07404, Doi 10.1029/2009gl037381 (link)
      • Rosnay, P. de, Drusch, M., Boone, A., Balsamo, G., Decharme, B., Harris, P., Kerr, Y., Pellarin, T., Polcher, J., and Wigneron, J.-P. (2009).: AMMA Land Surface Model Intercomparison Experiment coupled to the Community Microwave Emission Model: ALMIP-MEM. Journal of Geophysical Research, Volume 114, Issue D5, 16 March 2009 (link)
      • Werth, S., Güntner, A., Petrovic, S., and Schmidt, R. (2009). : Integration of GRACE mass variations into a global hydrological model.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 277(1-2), 166–173. (link)



      • Abramowitz, Gab, Leuning, Ray, Clark, Martyn, and Pitman, Andy (2008). Evaluating the Performance of Land Surface Models. Journal of Climate, 21(21), 5468–5481. (link)
      • Ciais, P., Schelhaas, M. J., Zaehle, S., Piao, S. L., Cescatti, A., Liski, J., Luyssaert, S., Le-Maire, G., Schulze, E. D., Bouriaud, O., Freibauer, A., Valentini, R., and Nabuurs, G. J.: Carbon accumulation in European forests, Nature Geoscience, 1, 425-429 (link)
      • Ciais, P., Piao, S.-L., Cadule, P., Friedlingstein, P., and Chédin, A. (2008). Variability and recent trends in the African carbon balance. Biogeosciences Discuss., 5(4), 3497–3532. (link)
      • Gervois, Sébastien, Ciais, Philippe, Noblet-Ducoudré, Nathalie de, Brisson, Nadine, Vuichard, Nicolas, and Viovy, Nicolas (2008). Carbon and water balance of European croplands throughout the 20th century. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Volume 22, Issue 2, June 2008 (link)
      • Hollingsworth, A., Engelen, R. J., Textor, C., Benedetti, A., Boucher, O., Chevallier, F., Dethof, A., Elbern, H., Eskes, H., Flemming, J., Granier, C., Kaiser, J. W., Morcrette, J.-J., Rayner, P., Peuch, V.-H., Rouil, L., Schultz, M. G., and Simmons, A. J. (2008). Toward a Monitoring and Forecasting System For Atmospheric Composition: The GEMS Project. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 89(8), 1147–1164. (link)
      • d’Orgeval, T., and Polcher, J.: Impacts of precipitation events and land-use changes on West African river discharges during the years 1951-2000, Climate Dynamics, 31, 249-262, DOI 10.1007/s00382-007-0350-x (link)
      • d’Orgeval, T., Polcher, J., and de Rosnay, P.: Sensitivity of the West African hydrological cycle in ORCHIDEE to infiltration processes, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 12, 1387-1401 (link)
      • Khvorostyanov, D. V., Ciais, P., Krinner, G., and Zimov, S. A.: Vulnerability of East Siberia’s frozen carbon stores to future warming, Geophysical Research Letters, 35, L10703, 10.1029/2008gl033639 (link)
      • Piao, S. L., Ciais, P., Friedlingstein, P., Peylin, P., Reichstein, M., Luyssaert, S., Margolis, H., Fang, J. Y., Barr, A., Chen, A. P., Grelle, A., Hollinger, D. Y., Laurila, T., Lindroth, A., Richardson, A. D., and Vesala, T.: Net Carbon Dioxide losses of northern ecosystems in response to autumn warming, Nature, 451, 49-U43, Doi 10.1038/Nature06444 (link)
      • Richardson, A. D., Mahecha, M. D., Falge, E., Kattge, J., Moffat, A. M., Papale, D., Reichstein, M., Stauch, V. J., Braswell, B. H., and Churkina, G. (2008). Statistical properties of random CO2 flux measurement uncertainty inferred from model residuals. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 148(1), 38–50.
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      • Weber, U., Jung, M., Reichstein, M., Beer, C., Braakhekke, M., Lehsten, V., Ghent, D., Kaduk, J., Viovy, N., Ciais, P., Gobron, N., and Rödenbeck, C. (2008). The inter-annual variability of Africa’s ecosystem productivity: a multi-model analysis. Biogeosciences Discuss., 5(5), 4035–4069. (link)


      • Abramowitz, Gab, Pitman, Andy, Gupta, Hoshin, Kowalczyk, Eva, and Wang, Yingping (2007). Systematic Bias in Land Surface Models.Journal of Hydrometeorology, 8(5), 989–1001. (link)
      • Canadell, Josep G., Quér\’e, Corinne Le, Raupach, Michael R., Field, Christopher B., Buitenhuis, Erik T., Ciais, Philippe, Conway, Thomas J., Gillett, Nathan P., Houghton, R. A., and Marland, Gregg (2007). Contributions to accelerating atmospheric CO2 growth from economic (link)activity, carbon intensity, and efficiency of natural sinks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(47), 18866–18870. (link)
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      • Demarty, J., Chevallier, F., Friend, A. D., Viovy, N., Piao, S., and Ciais, P.: Assimilation of global MODIS leaf area index retrievals within a terrestrial biosphere model, Geophysical Research Letters, 34, Artn L15402, Doi 10.1029/2007gl030014 (link)
      • Friend, AD, Arneth, A, Kiang, NY, Lomas, M, Ogee, J, Rodenbeckk, C, Running, SW, Santaren, JD, Sitch, S, Viovy, N, Woodward, FI, and Zaehle, S (2007). FLUXNET and modelling the global carbon cycle.Global change Biology, 13(3), 610–633.
      • Jung, M., Le Maire, G., Zaehle, S., Luyssaert, S., Vetter, M., Churkina, G., Ciais, P., Viovy, N., and Reichstein, M.: Assessing the ability of three land ecosystem models to simulate gross carbon uptake of forests from boreal to Mediterranean climate in Europe, Biogeosciences, 4, 647-656 (link)
      • Jung, Martin, Vetter, Mona, Herold, Martin, Churkina, Galina, Reichstein, Markus, Zaehle, Soenke, Ciais, Philippe, Viovy, Nicolas, Bondeau, Alberte, Chen, Youmin, Trusilova, Kristina, Feser, Frauke, and Heimann, Martin . Uncertainties of modeling gross primary productivity over Europe: A systematic study on the effects of using different drivers and terrestrial biosphere models. Global Biogeochemical Cycles Volume 21, Issue 4, December 2007 (link)
      • Ngo-Duc, T., Laval, K., Ramillien, G., Polcher, J., and Cazenave, A.: Validation of the land water storage simulated by organising Carbon and Hydrology in dynamic ecosystems (ORCHIDEE) with gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE) data, Water Resources Research, 43, Artn W04427, Doi 10.1029/2006wr004941 (link)
      • Piao, Shilong, Friedlingstein, Pierre, Ciais, Philippe, Noblet-Ducoudré, Nathalie de, Labat, David, and Zaehle, Sönke (2007).Changes in climate and land use have a larger direct impact than rising CO2 on global river runoff trends.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(39), 15242–15247.(link)
      • Piao, Shilong, Friedlingstein, Pierre, Ciais, Philippe, Viovy, Nicolas, and Demarty, Jér\^ome (2007). Growing season extension and its impact on terrestrial carbon cycle in the Northern Hemisphere over the past 2 decades.(link)
      • Reichstein, M, Ciais, P, Papale, D, Valentini, R, Running, S, Viovy, N, Cramer, W, Granier, A, Ogee, J, Allard, V, Aubinet, M, Bernhofer, C, Buchmann, N, Carrara, A, Grunwald, T, Heimann, M, Heinesch, B, Knohl, A, Kutsch, W, Loustau, D, Manca, G, Matteucci, G, Miglietta, F, Ourcival, JM, Pilegaard, K, Pumpanen, J, Rambal, S, Schaphoff, S, Seufert, G, Soussana, JF, Sanz, MJ, Vesala, T, and Zhao, M (2007).Reduction of ecosystem productivity and respiration during the European summer 2003 climate anomaly: a joint flux tower, remote sensing and modelling analysis.Global Change Biology, 13(3), 634–651. (link)
      • Santaren D., Philippe Peylin, Nicolas Viovy, and Philippe Ciais, Optimizing a Process based Ecosystem Model with Eddy-Covariance Flux Measurements: Part 1. A Pine Forest in Southern France, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 21 (2) (link)
      • Seguin, Bernard, Arrouays, Dominique, Balesdent, Jérome, Soussana, Jean-François, Bondeau, Alberte, Smith, Pascalle, Zaehle, Sönke, Noblet, Nathalie de, and Viovy, Nicolas (2007).Moderating the impact of agriculture on climate.Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 142(2-4), 278–287. (link)
      • Vautard, R., Yiou, P., D’Andrea, F., Noblet, N. de, Viovy, N., Cassou, C., Polcher, J., Ciais, P., Kageyama, M., and Fan, Y. (2007).Summertime European heat and drought waves induced by wintertime Mediterranean rainfall deficit. (link)


      • Chevallier, Fréd\’eric, Viovy, Nicolas, Reichstein, Markus, and Ciais, Philippe (2006).On the assignment of prior errors in Bayesian inversions of CO2 surface fluxes. Geophysical Research Letters Volume 33, Issue 13, July 2006 (link)
      • Hordoir, R., Nguyen, K. D., and Polcher, J. (2006). Simulating tropical river plumes, a set of parametrizations based on macroscale data: A test case in the Mekong Delta region.Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans (1978–2012) Volume 111, Issue C9, September 2006 (link)
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      • Piao, SL, Fang, JY, Zhou, LM, Ciais, P, and Zhu, B (2006). Variations in satellite-derived phenology in China’s temperate vegetation.Global Change Biology, 12(4), 672–685.(link)
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      • Abramowitz, Gab (2005).Towards a benchmark for land surface models. Geophysical Research Letters, 32, 22702.(link)
      • Berthelot, Marie, Friedlingstein, Pierre, Ciais, Philippe, Dufresne, Jean-Louis, and Monfray, Patrick (2005). How uncertainties in future climate change predictions translate into future terrestrial carbon fluxes. Global Change Biology, 11(6), 959–970.(link)
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      • Krinner, G., Viovy, N., de Noblet-Ducoudre, N., Ogee, J., Polcher, J., Friedlingstein, P., Ciais, P., Sitch, S., and Prentice, I. C.: A dynamic global vegetation model for studies of the coupled atmosphere-biosphere system, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 19, Gb1015, 10.1029/2003gb002199 (link)
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      • Morales, Pablo, Sykes, Martin T., Prentice, I. Colin, Smith, Pete, Smith, Benjamin, Bugmann, Harald, Zierl, Barbel, Friedlingstein, Pierre, Viovy, Nicolas, Sabate, Santi, Sanchez, Anabel, Pla, Eduard, Gracia, Carlos A., Sitch, Stephen, Arneth, Almut, and Ogee, Jerome (2005). Comparing and evaluating process-based ecosystem model predictions of carbon and water fluxes in major European forest biomes. Global Change Biology, 11(12), 2211–2233. (link)
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      • Peylin, Philippe, Bousquet, Philippe, Quér\’e, Corinne Le, Sitch, Stephen, Friedlingstein, Pierre, McKinley, Galen, Gruber, Nicolas, Rayner, Peter, and Ciais, Philippe (2005).Multiple constraints on regional CO2 flux variations over land and oceans.Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Volume 19, Issue 1, March 2005. (link)


      • Best, M. J., Beljaars, A., Polcher, J., and Viterbo, P. (2004).A Proposed Structure for Coupling Tiled Surfaces with the Planetary Boundary Layer. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 5(6), 1271–1278. (link)
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      • Viovy, N.: Interannuality and CO2 sensitivity of the SECHIBA-BGC coupled SVAT-BGC model, Physics and Chemistry of The Earth, 21, 489-497 (link)


      • Ducoudré, Nathale I., Laval, Katia, and Perrier, Alain (1993). SECHIBA, a New Set of Parameterizations of the Hydrologic Exchanges at the Land-Atmosphere Interface within the LMD Atmospheric General Circulation Model. Journal of Climate, 6(2), 248–273. (link)
      • Mahfouf, J. F., Ciret, C., Ducharne, A., Irannejad, P., Noilhan, J., Shao, Y., Thornton, P., Xue, Y., and Yang, Z. L.: Analysis of transpiration results from the RICE and PILPS workshop, Global and Planetary Change, 13, 73-88, Doi 10.1016/0921-8181(95)00039-9 (link)
      • Polcher, J., Laval, K., Dümenil, L., Lean, J., and Rowntree, P. R. (1996). Comparing three land surface schemes used in general circulation models. Journal of Hydrology, 180(1-4), 373–394. (link)


      • Ducoudré, N. I., Laval, K., and Perrier, A.: Sechiba: a new set of parameterizations of the hydrologic exchanges at the land atmosphere interface within the LMD atmospheric general-circulation model, Journal of Climate, 6, 248-273 (link)


    • Laval, K., Sadourny, R., and Serafini, Y.: Land surface processes in a simplified general-circulation model, Geophysical and Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics, 17, 129-150, Doi 10.1080/03091928108243677 (link)

Ongoing developments


  • An improved canopy radiation transfer scheme
  • A multi-layer energy budget
  • Implementation of the dynamics of snow packing and snow melt
  • The inclusion of isotopes (18O and 13C)


  • Introduction of parameter sets for new PFTs, to drive the externalized version
  • Soil micro-organism representation for SOM decomposition
  • DOC/DIC production and leaching
  • Simulation of forest fires, based on the SPITFIRE model
  • Forest demography, including stochastic processes


  • Differentiating forest management
  • Biofuel crop management
  • New crop specific modules (such as rice and sugar cane)

Code structure

  • Development of the “Adjoint” code

For more further details, please don’t hesitate to contact us.