Ongoing Projects

Posted Posted in Uncategorized
Accepted / Running projects
Project nameProject leaderDurationObjective (with respect of ORCHIDEE)
VERIFYP. Peylin2018-2021Simulate C-balance of EU ecosystems
ESM-SnowMIPG. Krinner2016-Evaluate snow parameterizations, quantify role of snow in climate feedbacks
M-TRAITA. Valade2018-2020Role of traits plasticity for response of trees to droughts
TOSCA-SWOTC. Ottlé2016-2020Role of Lakes in climate modeling and use of satellite data to improve their representation
ESA-HRLCC. Ottlé/P. Peylin2018-2021Use HR Land Cover data to improve energy and water cycles parametrisations
I-GEMA. Ducharne, with also F. Cheruy2015-2019Add the influence of groundwater on soil moisture and the surface fluxes
C-CASCADESP. Ciais for ORCHIDEE2015-2019Represent lateral fluxes of DOC from high latitude
ASSESSB. Guenet2018-2021Estimate the erosion cost over the meediteranenan bassin
CLIMAXN Viovy20017-2020Interaction between vegetation and atmosphere in tropical region
PREVIPOLN Viovy20017-2020Predicting risk of pollen allergy over France
ECOFLUOY. Goulas (LMD)2017-2019Fluorescence measurements and assimilation
IMBALANCEPP.CiaisPhosphorus cycling
TOSCA / BIOMASSPhilippe Peylin2018 (renewable)Use of forest biomass satellite data (BIOMASS futur mission) to improve ORCHIDEE;



Posted Posted in You & ORCHIDEE

Fair Use Policy for ORCHIDEE

The fair use policy is designed to ensure that the individuals and teams that develop the ORCHIDEE model receive proper credit for their work. The policy applies to the use of the referenced version described below. This model version is freely available; it is furnished by the ORCHIDEE project group (see ) who encourage its use. Please kindly inform by email (orchidee-projet at how you will use the model and of any publication plans. If not yet published, please reference the source of the data or model output as a citation or in the acknowledgments. The scientists who provided the data or model output will tell you if they feel they should be acknowledged or offered participation as authors. We assume that an agreement on such matters will be reached before publishing and/or use of the data for publication. If your work directly competes with an ongoing investigation, the scientists who provided the data or model output may ask that they have the opportunity to submit a manuscript before you submit one that uses their data or model output. When publishing, please acknowledge the agency that supported the research. We kindly request that those publishing papers using AmeriFlux data, Fluxnet Canada data, or Regional MDC model output provide reprints to the appropriate scientist providing the data or model output, and to the data archive at the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC).

Recognition of intellectual contributions to the ORCHIDEE environment will be ensured by:

  • Offering co-authorship on any publication that benefits of recent improvements in the ORCHIDEE environment. We deliberately refrain from specifying ‘recent’ as it should be function of the intellectual contribution and the exposure this contribution already received.
  • Discussing, early on, intended usage of recent improvements in the ORCHIDEE environment. This discussion should prevent uses and/or applications of the ORCHIDEE environment which are in conflict with the plans of the main contributor.
  • The main contributor to the ORCHIDEE environment lists his/her intended usage of his/her recent improvements in the ORCHIDEE environment (see Section “Intended studies”).

The fair use policy is designed as a win-win opportunity for both users and developers of the ORCHIDEE environment. It warrants the continuation of ambitious model developments and thus contributes to safeguarding our leadership in land surface modelling.


How to use ORCHIDEE

  1. Free use of a referenced version
    The version that was used for the CMIP5 exercice is freely available
    Access to the code:
  • downloding code: Please send an email to “orchidee-projet at” with your intended use of ORCHIDEE. You will receive the connection details to download the reference version (via svn)

Support: see the online documentation

  • Use of follow-up recent versionsORCHIDEE is a continuously evolving research tool. Despite the efforts of documenting and validating tags before their release, new users are likely to require help to correctly use the full functionality of ORCHIDEE and its run environment. For this purpose we organize regular training days detailing the scientific basis of the model as well as the technical aspects of its run environment.
    For new users, the first line of support is the ORCHIDEE wiki that becomes accessible following registration. The second line of support is the supervisor. For users who participated in the training days and have a formal working agreement with the ORCHIDEE project team a third line of support is the help mailing list

    Requests for support from unregistered users, non-academic users or users without a working agreement with someone from the “ORCHIDEE-Project team” will not be considered


We may need your expertise

The IPSL (Institut Pierre Simon Laplace) gathers 9 laboratories whose research topics focus on the global environment with a common strategy for the study of the Earth System as a whole A major research mission is to contribute to a better understanding of the interactions between human activities in the Earth System, environment and climate dynamics at different time scales. If you have a PhD in mathematics, physics, engineering, computer science, meteorology, or physiology, or you believe that your skills could contribute to the development of ORCHIDEE as the land surface component of the IPSL Earth System model, feel free to send us your CV, a customized letter of motivation and three names of people who are willing to act as references.

Team logistics

Posted Posted in About the ORCHIDEE project team

ORCHIDEE team meetings

The ORCHIDEE project group has defined a series of regular meetings to achieve the objectives of the project group and to maintain a regular flow of information between the core “ORCHIDEE project group” and the ensemble of developers and users (non-permanent scientists and engineers). The idea is to have regular meetings each week and to alternate between:

    • Technical meetings: Restricted to the steering committee and few other active developers. These concern management of the code, scientific and technical discussions concerning the implementation of the ORCHIDEE project decisions, and follow-ups of engineering work.
    • Project meetings: Restricted to the steering committee. The main objectives are general decision making and coordination of the model developement.
    • Developer/user meeting: Open to all. The main objectives are: 1) to inform all developers/users of the code about the ongoing ORCHIDEE developments and branch integration into the main version, and 2) to present and discuss a specific ongoing development (scientific or technical).

Management of the code:

In order to increase the efficiency of the code maintenance, development and management, we have grouped the different modules and routines by processes/technical aspects, following the diagram below. For each process or technical aspect, one person from the steering committee is responsible for managing all technical and scientific problems/bugs that arise (usually managed through a “ticket” system) and to report to the steering committee about the evolution of that part of the code.

How to contact us ?

Four mailing lists have been created on the IPSL server ( in order to facilitate the flow of information at different levels.


We also organize regular seminar either at LSCE or in Jussieu on land-surface related subjects. We created a specific mailing list where you can subscribe (ORCHIDEE MEETING) at:


Posted Posted in About the ORCHIDEE project team

Objectives of the team

The ORCHIDEE project is dedicated to the development of the global Land Surface Model (LSM) ORCHIDEE and its use for a wide range of applications (from land surface processes to climate studies). The project is centered around a project team (referred to as the “ORCHIDEE project group”) whose main objective is to coordinate the strategy for the model development, maintenance, validation, distribution, and valorisation.

The project team consists of a “steering committee” including around 15 scientists (see figure below) who meet every two months to discuss and coordinate all model developments, validation and valorisation. Three specific tasks linked to the main responsabilities of the project team have been identified with a key leader:

    • Maintenance of the ORCHIDEE code (J. Ghattas).
    • Evaluation and validation of successive code releases (N. Vuichard).
    • General code quality, including documentation, risk assessment, and promotion of the code (F. Maignan).

Project leader: Philippe Peylin

Figure 1: Organisation of the project team

Role & responsabilities of the team

The ORCHIDEE project group:

Makes decisions about

    • the developments that will integrate into the standard version of ORCHIDEE
    • the order in which these developments will be included


    • Recruitment of engineers dedicated to model developments
    • Planning of the different engineers resources
    • Shared funding to hire some of the engineers
    • Interactions with the different laboratories and institutes that are involved in the
      development of the model, and in particular the “pôle de modélisation” of IPSL institute.


    • Regular deliveries of tagged versions of the model and their robustness at several computer centers (CCRT, IDRIS, LSCE)
    • Scientific evaluation
    • Updates of code documentation within these tagged versions
    • Production, archiving and access to reference simulations (both uncoupled and coupled to the GCM)
    • Training to new users through regular courses
    • User support through several tools (wiki site, help list via email, etc)

Communicates to all partners (developers, users, partner institutes) information on :

    • developement planning and their integration into the main code
    • ongoing and forthcoming research projects that use ORCHIDEE
    • mid-term strategy plans by annually updating this document.


    • an annual general assembly
    • a project review with the partner institute managements
      (LMD and LSCE laboratories, “pôle de modélisation” of IPSL)

HOW to contact us ?

See contact section

Core team of ORCHIDEE

NameInstituteMain interestEmail
Cadule PatriciaIPSLCoupled mode management
Fire module (SPITFIRE)
Ciais PhilippeIPSL/LSCEContributions to overall direction and
Chéruy FrédériqueIPSL/LMDContributions to coupling with
Ducharne AgnèsSisyphe/UPMCContributions to / management of hydrology and
Ghattas JosefineIPSLCode
Krinner GerhardLGGEContributions to high latitudes
Lathière JulietteIPSL/LSCEManagement of coupling with
Luyssaert SebastiaanIPSL/LSCEIntegration of developments: nitrogen, forest management module / Contributions to the new energy balance scheme / Scientific
Maignan FabienneIPSL/LSCEGlobal simulations (inter-comparisons)
Validation / Optimization remote sensed data
Documentation / Risk analysis
Ottlé CatherineIPSL/LSCEContributions to snow and permafrost
Peylin PhilippeIPSL/LSCEProject Management / General contributions
Adjoint model
Polcher JanIPSL/LMDContributions to / management of hydrology, routing and energy
Viovy NicolasIPSL/LSCEGeneral contributions to Stomate and the DGVM
Nitrogen cycle integration / Forest management module
Vuichard NicolasIPSL/LSCEIntegration of biogeochemical developments
Assessment of impacts
Research: Impact of management of agro- systems

Other users and developers

NameInstituteMain interestFields of expertise (scientific and technical)Email
Fita Lluís ,Sörensson Anna, Schrapffer Anthony
(with J. Polcher)
Centro de Investigaciones del Mar y la Atmósfera
(CIMA) Argentina
River flow, floods, land-surface water bodies-atmosphere interaction in South America-Regional climate modelling
- model development and coupling
- extreme events
- land-atmosphere interaction
MacBean NatashaUniversity of Arizona / Indiana University (from August 2018)1. Semi-arid ecosystem C/W/E processes & trends and contribution to IAV of global C budget
2. Testing of eCO2 and WUE changes on LAI and aboveground biomass in comparison to tree rings/satellites (within PalEON project -
Carbon cycle, phenology/vegetation trends, CH4, hydrology, land cover and change,  offline simulations, data assimilation, global, regional, semi-arid ecosystems, remote sensing data. ;
Barichivich JonathanUniversidad Austral de ChileParameterisation and a range of applications of ORCHIDEE-CN-CAN in tropical and temperate South America in collaboration with S. Luyssaert and P. PeylinWater and carbon cycling, drought and extreme events, tree rings, satellite
Valade AudeCREAFInclusion of traits variability in ORCHIDEE-CN-CAN for application to response of forests to droughts.
Project: MSC-fellowship M-TRAITS
Forest management, Carbon cycle, hydraulic
Yue ChaoLSCE, NWAFU1. Historical and future land-use change and its contribution to global carbon budget;
2. Fires in the earth system and its feed back to vegetation and climate
3. Vegetation dynamics focusing on semi-arid regions of China.
4. Coupling vegetation models to soil erosion models.
5. Carbon and Hydrological impacts on semi-arid regions.
Land use change; fires and other disturbances, vegetation dynamics, forest
Jeong JinaVU AmsterdamUsing tree-ring widths and their isotopic composition to optimize the global land surface model ORCHIDEE and LMDz
Project: VERIFY, PhD-studies
Carbon allocation, tree growth, 13C isotopic discrimination,
Lansøb Anne SofieLSCEEffects of litter raking on present day C-sink in European forests
Project: DESIRE
Carbon cycle, Forest management,
Resovsky AlexLSCEEvaluation of ORCHIDEE-CN-CAN against combined fertilization and management trials in Sweden
Project: DESIRE
Marie GuillaumeVU AmsterdamEffects of bark beetle infestation on the European carbon sink
Project: AAA (Amsterdam Academic Alliance)
Forest management, Carbon cycle,
Chen Yi-YingAcademia Sinicia, TaiwanEffects of typhoons on c-budget, surface, boundary layer climate, and regional land cover changes
Janssen ThomasVU AmsterdamDifferential effects on leaves, trees and tropical forests under seasonal, episodic and multi-seasonal drought
Project: PhD-studies
Ecophysiological responses to droughts,
Goll DanielLSCENutrients (N,P) cycles and their interactions with cycles of carbon and water, weathering,
Project IMBALANCE-P (hired by), proposals in prep and under review
Terrestrial biogeochemical cycles, model development (ORCHIDEE, JSBACH),
Guimberteau MatthieuLSCEHydrology and routing: improve, evaluate, sensitivity tests
Projects: - Main (hired by): IMBALANCE-P
- Collaboration: CHINA-TREND-STREAM
Land surface hydrology, river routing scheme, atmospheric forcings.
Model codes: MICT, TRUNK, CNP
Bacour CédricNOVELTISOngoing & forthcoming projects:
-Data assimilation for improving ORCHIDEE parameterization (in situ flux measurements, atm. CO2, remote sensing products of vegetation photosynthetic capacity & activity...)
- Modelling of canopy fluorescence (Sun Induced Fluorescence - SIF)
- Fluorescence
- Radiative transfer
- Data assimilation
- Remote sensing
Qiu ChunjingLSCEModeling of peatlands hydrology, peatlands C decomposition and accumulation, peatlands area extentsORCHIDEE-MICT
Northern peatlands C and hydrology
Bowring SimonLSCEDOC production, transport, transformation in permafrost systems from plants to soils to the hydrosystem; new sub-branch of ORCHIDEE-MICT.High latitudes; terrestrial and marine ecology.
Verbeke ThomasMETISEcophysiological and physical processes modelling involved in Biosphere/Atmosphere interactions.  Sub-branch ORCHIDEE-GW. Tropospheric ozone impact on vegetation. Water-Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continuum. Impact of groundwater level evolution on near-surface climate. Code development.
Chang JinfengLSCECarbon-Nitrogen-Phosphorus cycles of grassland, and its response to climate and management change.
Project: hired by IMBALANCE-P
Grassland management, Carbon-nutrient
Naudts KimMPI-M LESEffect of species interactions on drought responseForest management, carbon cycle, drought response (hydraulic architecture), plant
Zhou XudongLMDHuman processes in ORCHIDEE’s water cycleThe high resolution is the main ingredient
Raoult Nina LSCE-Data assimilation with ORC, currently focusing on soil moisture and will link to the carbon cycle.
-Helping to develop the tangent linear of the model
Data assimilation (variational mainly - adjoints), carbon
Li WeiLSCEBioenergy crop modeling in MICTBioenergy crops; Land use
Peaucelle MarcLSCE-CREAFResource use coordination (water/Co2/light/nutrients) based on ecological principles (optimality);
Representation of functional traits;
Acclimation ;
Project: Imbalance-P
Functional ecology;
Forest management;
Plant physiology;
Petrus KarineLSCE-Development of ORCHIDEE-MEB
-Implementation of a multi-bilan energy in ORCHIDEE: ORCHIDEE-MEB
-Implementation of a lake model in ORCHIDEE: ORCHIDEE-LAK
Bastrikov VladislavLSCE- data assimilation with ORCHIDEE
- technical support (data assimilation system, outputs visualization system, land cover maps production, forcings testing, reference simulations performance)
- albedo optimization
Data scientist, scientific software
Haslehner MylèneLSCE-Working on the joint analysis of carbonylsulfide (COS) and CO2
-Helping to develop the tangent linear
-Later goal: Data assimilation with ORCHIDEE
Data assimilation,
Carbon cycle
Joetzjer EmilieLSCE-EDB -working on the Amazon forest response to drought (including tree mortality) in ORCHIDEE-CAN Water and carbon cycling, drought and extreme
Combe MarieCAVElab, Ghent University- application of ORCHIDEE-CNP over the Congo Basin
- sensitivity of the model to total atmospheric deposition of N and P
NB: I was not hired on the IMBALANCE-P project but and now participating to the project meetings
Carbon cycling and vegetation drought response in - croplands
- tropical forests.
Now starting to know more about N and P cycling too or
Bruni ElisaLSCE-Investigate interactions between terrestrial vegetation and atmospheric deposition
-Climate forcing impacts on N:P ratio increasing trends in European forests
biosphere -atmosphere interactions
Data analysis
Abramoff RoseLSCEA flexible, data-driven framework to predict soil responses to land-use and climate changeSoil
Chen XiuzhiLSCEPhenology of tropical evergreen forests
Alaoui OmarLSCECrop modeling in EuropeCrop
Peng ShushiPKUCH4 in wetlands / attributionCH4 cycle / biosphere -atmosphere interactions
-Data analysis
Wang XuhuiLSCECrop models global development and applications / crop rotations
Yuan ZhangLSCE LMDDiffuse light effects / aerosols effects on vegetation-atmosphere interactionsbiosphere -atmosphere
Zun (Vincent) YinLSCEIrrigation and water balance in ChinaLand surface
Weizhe (Jeremy) ChenLSCEExtreme events in China /
Céline Gommet ULB LSCEDOC in European riversDOC
Ronny LauerwaldULBRiver carbon and nutrient transportRiver loop of biogeochemical
Dan ZhuLSCEHigh latitudes / large mammalsbiosphere -atmosphere
Victoria NaipalLSCEErosion (with ORCHIDEE emulator)
Fabio Cresto AlenaLSCEModelling forest succession and interspecies competition in the tropical forest using ORCHIDEE-CANForest biogeochemistry (ORCHIDEE-CAN), peatlands and methane
Haicheng ZhangLSCESOC decomposition - optimality
Marko KvavikINRACrop limitations by
Yuanyuan HuangLSCEMatrix based traceability frameworkModel
Yan SunLSCEPhosphorus emerging limitations P
Fabio BerzhaghiLSCEHerbivores (not started with ORCHIDEE yet)
Ye HuangLSCEHeating
Narayanappa DevarajuLSCEVegetation atmosphere coupling- quantification (ORCHIDEE_trunk)
LMDZ-ORCHIDEE-MICT coupling Related to IMBALANCE-P project
Land atmosphere
Delphine TardifIPGPInteraction vegetation - climat - paléogéographie - paramètres orbitaux - pCO2 au Cénozoique (utilisation de IPSLCM5A2).
Végétation dynamique et semi dynamique
Albert Jornet PuigLSCETechnical part of Orchidee MICT Software Engineer
HPC,Debugging, Parallelization
Salmon ElodieLSCE / LPC2EMethane emissions from peatland in high latitude region
Northern peatlands, C cycle in high latitude, green house gases emssions.

About the ORCHIDEE project team

Posted Posted in About the ORCHIDEE project team

The Orchidee project was established across several laboratories and it is dedicated to development of the global Land Surface Model (LSM) ORCHIDEE and its use for a wide range of applications from land surface processes to climate studies. The different steps of the ORCHIDEE model/project genesis are summarized in the figure below.

The genesis of ORCHIDEE

During the 1980s, the development at the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD) of a global General Circulation Model (GCM) stimulated the development of a specific land surface model to calculate the energy and water balance of terrestrial ecosystems (Laval et al., 1981). In the early 1990s, the model was substantially refined with a description of the earth surface categorized into several biomes called PFTs (Plant Functional Types) which led to a version, named SECHIBA (Ducoudré et al., 1993). In the late 1990s and in the early 2000s, the Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (DGVM) ORCHIDEE (Krinner et al., 2005) was created, based on the coupling of SECHIBA with i) a carbon module, STOMATE describing the flow of carbon within the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum and ii) a dynamic vegetation module, inherited from the LPJ model, describing the evolution of natural vegetation with climate. Such effort was conducted between the LMD and LSCE laboratories.

Figure: History of the ORCHIDEE model development and of the project team development.
about the ORCHIDEE project team

A team to follow and coordinate the model developements

After the mid 2000s, there has been an exponential increase in the number of users and developers in several laboratories: within IPSL (LSCE, LMD, LOCEAN), outside IPSL (SISYPHE in Paris and LGGE in Grenoble) and internationally (PKU university in China, UCLM Toledo in Spain, University of Antwerp (UA) and UGhent university in Belgium). The increase of users and associated projects was accompanied by a large number of new developments. In this context, the need to merge the new model “branches” into a common version became crucial especially to address integrated scientific questions, but it also became highly challenging. The main ORCHIDEE developers/users have thus decided to reinforce the previous organisation (carried by the IPSL) and to operate as a more structured project across laboratories. This process that started at LSCE was rapidly enlarged to the IPSL and few other national and international laboratories (listed above) with the objectives to formalize communication, developments, planning and decision making around the model. The reorganisation into a new project structure has been adapted to the size and ambitions of the group. This web site summarize the foundation of this recent organization.

Gallery: Climatic impact of global-scale deforestation

Posted Posted in About ORCHIDEE

Climatic impact of global-scale deforestation: radiative versus non-radiative processes

All models investigated in this study simulated a negative sensitivity for both the land and the ocean carbon cycle to future climate. However, there was still a large uncertainty on the magnitude of these sensitivities. Eight models attributed most of the changes to the land, while three attributed it to the ocean. Also, a majority of the models located the reduction of land carbon uptake in the Tropics. However, the attribution of the land sensitivity to changes in net primary productivity versus changes in respiration is still subject to debate; no consensus emerged among the models.


Posted Posted in About ORCHIDEE

Europe-wide reduction in primary productivity caused by the heat and drought in 2003

This study estimates a 30 per cent reduction in gross primary productivity over Europe, which resulted in a strong anomalous net source of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere and reversed the effect of four years of net ecosystem carbon sequestration. The results suggest that productivity reduction in eastern and western Europe can be explained by rainfall deficit and extreme summer heat, respectively. The study reports that ecosystem respiration decreased together with gross primary productivity, rather than accelerating with the temperature rise.

Reference: P. Ciais, M. Reichstein, N. Viovy, A. Granier, J. Ogeé, V. Allard, M. Aubinet, N. Buchmann, C. Bernhofer, A. Carrara, F. Chevallier, N. De Noblet, A. D. Friend, P. Friedlingstein, T. Grünwald, B. Heinesch, P. Keronen, A. Knohl, G. Krinner, D. Loustau, G. Manca, G. Matteucci, F. Miglietta, J. M. Ourcival, D. Papale, K. Pilegaard, S. Rambal, G. Seufert, J. F. Soussana, M. J. Sanz, E. D. Schulze, T. Vesala and R. Valentini, 2005. Europe-wide reduction in primary productivity caused by the heat and drought in 2003. Nature, 437:529-533.


Posted Posted in About ORCHIDEE


  • Camino-Serrano, M.; Guenet, B.; Luyssaert, S.; Ciais, P.; Bastrikov, V.; De Vos, B.; Gielen, B.; Gleixner, G.; Jornet-Puig, A.; Kaiser, K.; Kothawala, D.; Lauerwald, R.; Penuelas, J.; Schrumpf, M.; Vicca, S.; Vuichard, N.; Walmsley, D. & Janssens, I. A. ORCHIDEE-SOM: modeling soil organic carbon (SOC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) dynamics along vertical soil profiles in Europe Geosci. Model Dev., 2018, 11, 937
  • Guimberteau, M.; Zhu, D.; Maignan, F.; Huang, Y.; Chao, Y.; Dantec-Nédélec, S.; Ottlé, C.; Jornet-Puig, A.; Bastos, A.; Laurent, P.; Goll, D.; Bowring, S.; Chang, J.; Guenet, B.; Tifafi, M.; Peng, S.; Krinner, G.; Ducharne, A.; Wang, F.; Wang, T.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Yin, Z.; Lauerwald, R.; Joetzjer, E.; Qiu, C.; Kim, H. & Ciais, P. ORCHIDEE-MICT (v8.4.1), a land surface model for the high latitudes: model description and validation Geosci. Model Dev., 2018, 11, 121-163
  • Qiu, C.; Zhu, D.; Ciais, P.; Guenet, B.; Krinner, G.; Peng, S.; Aurela, M.; Bernhofer, C.; Brümmer, C.; Bret-Harte, S.; Chu, H.; Chen, J.; Desai, A. R.; Dušek, J.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Fortuniak, K.; Flanagan, L. B.; Friborg, T.; Grygoruk, M.; Gogo, S.; Grünwald, T.; Hansen, B. U.; Holl, D.; Humphreys, E.; Hurkuck, M.; Kiely, G.; Klatt, J.; Kutzbach, L.; Largeron, C.; Laggoun-Défarge, F.; Lund, M.; Lafleur, P. M.; Li, X.; Mammarella, I.; Merbold, L.; Nilsson, M. B.; Olejnik, J.; Ottosson-Löfvenius, M.; Oechel, W.; Parmentier, F.-J. W.; Peichl, M.; Pirk, N.; Peltola, O.; Pawlak, W.; Rasse, D.; Rinne, J.; Shaver, G.; Schmid, H. P.; Sottocornola, M.; Steinbrecher, R.; Sachs, T.; Urbaniak, M.; Zona, D. & Ziemblinska, K. ORCHIDEE-PEAT (revision 4596), a model for northern peatland CO 2, water, and energy fluxes on daily to annual scales Geosci. Model Dev., 2018, 11, 497-519
  • Yue, C.; Ciais, P.; Luyssaert, S.; Li, W.; McGrath, M. J.; Chang, J. & Peng, S. Representing anthropogenic gross land use change, wood harvest and forest age dynamics in a global vegetation model ORCHIDEE-MICT (r4259) Geosci. Model Dev., 2018, 5, 409-428



  • Barella-Ortiz, A.; Polcher, J.; de Rosnay, P.; Piles, M. & Gelati, E. Comparison of measured brightness temperatures from SMOS with modelled ones from ORCHIDEE and H-TESSEL over the Iberian Peninsula Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Dis., Copernicus GmbH, 2017, 21, 357-375
  • Dantec-Nédélec, S.; Ottlé, C.; Wang, T.; Guglielmo, F.; Maignan, F.; Delbart, N.; Valdayskikh, V.; Radchenko, T.; Nekrasova, O.; Zakharov, V. and Jouzel J. Testing the capability of ORCHIDEE land surface model to simulate arctic ecosystems: Sensitivity analysis and site-level model calibration J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 2017, 9, 1212-1230
  • Druel, A.; Peylin, P.; Krinner, G.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.; Peregon, A.; Bastrikov, V.; Kosykh, N. & Mironycheva-Tokareva, N. Towards a more detailed representation of high-latitude vegetation in the global land surface model ORCHIDEE (ORC-HL-VEGv1.0) Geosci. Model Dev., 2017, 10, 4693-4722
  • Getirana A, Boone A, Peugeot C, and the ALMIP2 working group (2017). Streamflows over a West African basin from the ALMIP-2 model ensemble. J. Hydrometeorology, 18, 1831-1845, doi:10.1175/JHM-D-16-0233.1
  • Goll, D. S.; Vuichard, N.; Maignan, F.; Jornet-Puig, A.; Sardans, J.; Violette, A.; Peng, S.; Sun, Y.; Kvakic, M.; Guimberteau, M.; Guenet, B.; Zaehle, S.; Penuelas, J.; Janssens, I. A. & Ciais, P. A representation of the phosphorus cycle for ORCHIDEE (revision 4520) Geosci. Model Dev., Copernicus, 2017, 10, 3745-3770
  • Grippa, Kergoat, Boone, Peugeot, Demarty, Cappelaere, Gal, Hiernaux, Mougin, Ducharne, Dutra, Anderson, Hain, and the ALMIP2 working group (2017). Modelling surface runoff and water fluxes over contrasted soils in pastoral Sahel: evaluation of the ALMIP2 land surface models over the Gourma region in Mali. J. Hydrometeorology, 18, 1847- 1866, doi:10.1175/JHM-D-16-0170.1
  • Guimberteau M., Ciais P., Ducharne A., Boisier J. P., Aguiar A. P., Biemans H., De Deurwaerder H., Galbraith D., Kruijt B., Langerwisch F., Poveda G., Rammig A., Rodriguez D. A., Tejada G., Thonicke K., Von Randow C., Von Randow R. C. S., Zhang K. and Verbeeck H. (2017): Impacts of future deforestation and climate change on the hydrology of the Amazon basin: a multi-model analysis with a new set of land-cover change scenarios, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1455-1475, doi:10.5194/hess-21-1455-2017
  • Largeron, C.; Krinner, G.; Ciais, P. & Brutel-Vuilmet, C. Implementing northern peatlands in a global land surface model: description and evaluation in the ORCHIDEE high latitude version model (ORC-HL-PEAT) Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 2017, 1-26Lauerwald R., Regnier P., Camino-Serrano M., Guenet B., Guimberteau M., Ducharne A., Polcher J., and Ciais P. (2017): ORCHILEAK (revision 3875): a new model branch to simulate carbon transfers along the terrestrial-aquatic continuum of the Amazon basin, Geosci. Model Dev., 10.5194/gmd-10-3821-2017
  • Wang F, Ducharne A, Cheruy F, Lo MH, Grandpeix JL (2017). Impact of a shallow groundwater table on the global water cycle in the IPSL land-atmosphere coupled model, Climate Dynamics, doi:10.1007/s00382-017-3820-9
  • Zhao F., Veldkamp T., Frieler K., Schewe, J., Ostberg S., Willner S., Schauberger B., Gosling S., Müller Schmied H., Portmann F., Leng G., Huang M., Liu X., Tang Q., Hanasaki N., Biemans H., Gerten D., Satoh Y., Pokhrel Y., Stacke T., Ciais P., Ducharne A., Guimberteau M., Wada Y., Kim H. and Yamazaki D. The critical role of the routing scheme in simulating peak river discharge in global hydrological models, Environ. Res. Lett., 12 (2017) 075003, doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/aa7250



  • Chen, Y.; Ryder, J.; Bastrikov, V.; McGrath, M. J.; Naudts, K.; Otto, J.; Ottlé, C.; Peylin, P.; Polcher, J.; Valade, A.; Black, A.; Elbers, J. A.; Moors, E.; Foken, T.; van Gorsel, E.; Haverd, V.; Heinesch, B.; Tiedemann, F.; Knohl, A.; Launiainen, S.; Loustau, D.; Ogée, J.; Vessala, T. & Luyssaert, S.  Evaluating the performance of land surface model ORCHIDEE-CAN v1. 0 on water and energy flux estimation with a single-and multi-layer energy budget scheme Geosci. Model Dev., 2016, 9, 2951-2972
  • Guenet, B.; Moyano, F. E.; Peylin, P.; Ciais, P. & Janssens, I. A. Towards a representation of priming on soil carbon decomposition in the global land biosphere model ORCHIDEE (version 1.9. 5.2) Geosci. Model Dev., 2016, 9, 841-855
  • Johnson M.O., Galbraith D., Gloor E., De Deurwaerder H., Guimberteau M., Rammig A., Thonicke K., Verbeeck H., von Randow C., Brienen R.J.W., Feldpausch T.R., Lopez Gonzalez G., Monteagudo A., Phillips O.L., Quesada C.A., Christoffersen B., Ciais P., Gilvan S., Kruijt B., Meir P., Moorcroft P., Zhang K., Alvarez E.A., Alves de Oliveira A., Amaral I., Andrade A., Aragao L.E.O.C., Araujo-Murakami A., Arets E.J.M.M., Arroyo L., Aymard G.A., Baraloto C., Barroso J., Bonal D., Boot R., Camargo J., Chave J., Cogollo A., Cornejo Valverde F., da Costa L., di Fiore A., Higuchi N., Honorio E., Killeen T.J., Laurance S.G., Laurance W.F., Licona J., Lovejoy T., Malhi Y., Marimon B., Marimon Junior B., Mendoza C., Neill D.A., Pardo G., Peña-Claros M., Pitman N.C.A., Poorter L., Prieto A., Ramirez-Angulo H., Roopsind A., Rudas A., Salomao R.P., Silveira M., Stropp J., ter Steege H., Terborgh J., Thomas R., Toledo M., Torres-Lezama A., van der Heijden G.M.F., Vasquez R., Vieira I., Vilanova E., Vos V.A. and Baker T.R. (2016): Variation in stem mortality rates determines patterns of aboveground biomass in Amazonian forests: implications for dynamic global vegetation models, Glob. Change Biol., 22, 3996-4013, doi: 10.1111/gcb.13315
  • McGrath, M. J.; Ryder, J.; Pinty, B.; Otto, J.; Naudts, K.; Valade, A.; Chen, Y.; Weedon, J. & Luyssaert, S. A multi-level canopy radiative transfer scheme for ORCHIDEE (SVN r2566), based on a domain-averaged structure factor Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 2016
  • Polcher, J.; Piles, M.; Gelati, E.; Barella-Ortiz, A. & Tello, M. Comparing surface-soil moisture from the SMOS mission and the ORCHIDEE land-surface model over the Iberian Peninsula Remote Sens. Environ., Elsevier, 2016, 174, 69-81
  • Risi, C.; Ogee, J.; Bony, S.; Bariac, T.; Yaseef, N. R.; Wingate, L.; Welker, J.; Knohl, A.; Besson, C. K.; Leclerc, M.; Zhang, G.; Buchmann, N.; Santrucek, J.; Hronkova, M.; David, T.; Peylin, P. & Guglielmo, F.  The water isotopic version of the land-surface model ORCHIDEE: Implementation, evaluation, sensitivity to hydrological parameters Hydrol Current Res, 2016, 7, 2
  • Ryder, J.; Polcher, J.; Peylin, P.; Ottlé, C.; Chen, Y.; Gorsel, E. v.; Haverd, V.; McGrath, M.; Naudts, K.; Otto, J.; Valade, A. & Luyssaert, S. A multi-layer land surface energy budget model for implicit coupling with global atmospheric simulations Geosci. Model Dev., Copernicus GmbH, 2016, 9, 223-245
  • Wu, X.; Vuichard, N.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.; de Noblet-Ducoudré, N.; Wang, X.; Magliulo, V.; Wattenbach, M.; Vitale, L.; Tommasi, P. D.; Moors, E. J.; Jans, W.; Elbers, J.; Ceschia, E.; Tallec, T.; Bernhofer, C.; Grünwald, T.; Moureaux, C.; Manise, T.; Ligne, A.; Cellier, P.; Loubet, B.; Larmanou, E. & Ripoche, D. ORCHIDEE-CROP (v0), a new process based Agro-Land Surface Model: model description and evaluation over Europe Geosci. Model Dev., 2016, 9, 857-873



  • Naudts, K.; Ryder, J.; McGrath, M. J.; Otto, J.; Chen, Y.; Valade, A.; Bellasen, V.; Berhongaray, G.; Bönisch, G.; Campioli, M.; Ghattas, J.; Groote, T. D.; Haverd, V.; Kattge, J.; MacBean, N.; Maignan, F.; Merilä, P.; Penuelas, J.; Peylin, P.; Pinty, B.; Pretzsch, H.; Schulze, E. D.; Solyga, D.; Vuichard, N.; Yan, Y. & Luyssaert, S. A vertically discretised canopy description for ORCHIDEE (SVN r2290) and the modifications to the energy, water and carbon fluxes Geosci. Model Dev., 2015, 7, 8565-8647
  • Yang H., Piao S., Zeng Z., Ciais P., Yin Y., Friedlingstein P., Sitch S., Ahlström A., Guimberteau M., Huntingford C., Levis S., Levy P., Huang M., Li Y., Li X., Lomas M., Peylin P., Poulter B., Viovy N., Zaehle S., Zeng N., Zhao F. and Wang L. (2015): Multi-criteria evaluation of discharge simulation in Dynamic Global Vegetation Models, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 120, 7488-7505, doi:10.1002/2015JD023129
  • Yue, C.; Ciais, P.; Cadule, P.; Thonicke, K. & Van Leeuwen, T. Modelling the role of fires in the terrestrial carbon balance by incorporating SPITFIRE into the global vegetation model ORCHIDEE–Part 2: Carbon emissions and the role of fires in the global carbon balance Geosci. Model Dev., 2015, 8, 1321-1338
  • Zhu, D.; Peng, S. S.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.; Druel, A.; Kageyama, M.; Krinner, G.; Peylin, P.; Ottlé, C.; Piao, S. L.; Poulter, B.; Schepaschenko, D. & Shvidenko, A. Improving the dynamics of northern vegetation in the ORCHIDEE ecosystem model Geosci. Model Dev., 2015, 8, 2263-2283



  • Getirana A., Dutra E., Guimberteau M., Kam J., Li H.-Y., Decharme B., Zhang Z., Ducharne A., Boone A., Balsamo G., Rodell M., Toure A. M., Xue Y., Peters-Lidard C., Kumar S., Arsenault K., Drapeau G., Leung L. R., Ronchail J. and Sheffield J. (2014): Water Balance in the Amazon Basin from a Land Surface Model Ensemble, J. Hydrometeorol., 15, 2586-2614, doi:10.1175/JHM-D-14-0068.1
  • Guimberteau M., Ducharne A., Ciais P., Boisier J.P., Peng S., De Weirdt M. and Verbeeck H. (2014): Testing conceptual and physically based soil hydrology schemes against observations for the Amazon Basin, Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 1115-1136, doi:10.5194/gmd-7-1115-2014, 2014
  • Traore, A. K.; Ciais, P.; Vuichard, N.; Poulter, B.; Viovy, N.; Guimberteau, M.; Jung, M.; Myneni, R. & Fisher, J. B. Evaluation of the ORCHIDEE ecosystem model over Africa against 25 years of satellite-based water and carbon measurements J. Geophys. Res.-Biogeo., Wiley-Blackwell, 2014, 119, 1554-1575
  • Yue, C.; Ciais, P.; Cadule, P.; Thonicke, K.; Archibald, S.; Poulter, B.; Hao, W. M.; Hantson, S.; Mouillot, F.; Friedlingstein, P.; Maignan, F. & Viovy, N. Modelling the role of fires in the terrestrial carbon balance by incorporating SPITFIRE into the global vegetation model ORCHIDEE–Part 1: simulating historical global burned area and fire regimes Geosci. Model Dev., 2014, 7, 2747-2767



  • Barella-Ortiz, A.; Polcher, J.; Tuzet, A. & Laval, K. Potential evaporation estimation through an unstressed surface-energy balance and its sensitivity to climate change Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sc., 2013, 17, 4625-4639
  • Berg A., De Noblet-Ducoudré N., Sultan B., Lengaigne M. and Guimberteau M. (2013): Projections of climate change impacts on potential C4 crop productivity over tropical regions, Agric. For. Meteorol., 170 (2013) 89-102, doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2011.12.003
  • Campoy A, Ducharne A, Cheruy F, Hourdin F, Polcher J, Dupont JC (2013). Response of land surface fluxes and precipitation to different soil bottom hydrological conditions in a general circulation model. JGR-Atmospheres, 118, 10,725–10,739, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50627.
  • Chang, J. F.; Viovy, N.; Vuichard, N.; Ciais, P.; Wang, T.; Cozic, A.; Lardy, R.; Graux, A.-I.; Klumpp, K.; Martin, R. & Soussana, J.-F. Incorporating grassland management in ORCHIDEE: model description and evaluation at 11 eddy-covariance sites in Europe Geosci. Model Dev., 2013, 6, 2165-2181
  • Cheruy F, Campoy A,  Dupont J-C, Ducharne A, Hourdin F, Haeffelin M, Chiriaco M, Idelkadi A (2013). Combined influence of atmospheric physics and soil hydrology on the simulated meteorology at the SIRTA atmospheric observatory. Climate Dynamics, 40, 2251-2269, doi:10.1007/s00382-012-1469-y.
  • Guenet, B.; Moyano, F.; Vuichard, N.; Kirk, G.; Bellamy, P.; Zaehle, S. & Ciais, P. Can we model observed soil carbon changes from a dense inventory? A case study over England and Wales using three versions of the ORCHIDEE ecosystem model (AR5, AR5-PRIM and O-CN) Geosci. Model Dev., 2013, 6, 2153-2163
  • Guimberteau M., Ronchail J., Espinoza J. C., Lengaigne M., Sultan B., Polcher J., Drapeau G., Guyot J.-L., Ducharne A. and Ciais P. (2013): Future changes in precipitation and impacts on extreme streamflow over Amazonian sub-basins, Environ. Res. Lett., 8 014035, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/1/014035
  • Seneviratne S, Wilhelm M, Stanelle T, van den Hurk B, Hagemann S, Berg A, Cheruy F, Higgins ME, Meier A, Brovkin V, Claussen M, Ducharne A, Dufresne JL, Findell K, Ghattas J, Lawrence DM, Malyshev S, Rumukainen M, Smith B (2013). Impact of soil moisture-climate feedbacks on CMIP5 projections: First results from the GLACE-CMIP5 experiment. GRL,40, 5212–5217, doi:10.1002/grl.50956.
  • Sterling S, Ducharne A, Polcher J (2013). The impact of global land-cover change on the terrestrial water cycle. Nature Climate Change, 3, 385-390, doi:10.1038/nclimate1690.
  • Wang, T.; Ottlé, C.; Boone, A.; Ciais, P.; Brun, E.; Morin, S.; Krinner, G.; Piao, S. & Peng, S. Evaluation of an improved intermediate complexity snow scheme in the ORCHIDEE land surface model J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 2013, 118, 6064-6079



  • De Weirdt, M., H. Verbeeck, F. Maignan, P. Peylin, B. Poulter, D. Bonal, P. Ciais, and K. Steppe (2012), Seasonal leaf dynamics for tropical evergreen forests in a process-based global ecosystem model, Geoscientific Model Development, 5(5), 1091-1108 (link)
  • Gouttevin, I., Krinner, G., Ciais, P., Polcher, J., and Legout, C.: Multi-scale validation of a new soil freezing scheme for a land-surface model with physically-based hydrology, Cryosphere, 6, 407-430, DOI 10.5194/tc-6-407-2012 (link)
  • Gouttevin, I., Menegoz, M., Domine, F., Krinner, G., Koven, C., Ciais, P., Tarnocai, C., and Boike, J.: How the insulating properties of snow affect soil carbon distribution in the continental Pan-Arctic area, Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 117, Artn G02020, Doi 10.1029/2011jg001916 (link)
  • Guimberteau, M., Drapeau, G., Ronchail, J., Sultan, B., Polcher, J., Martinez, J. M., Prigent, C., Guyot, J. L., Cochonneau, G., Espinoza, J. C., Filizola, N., Fraizy, P., Lavado, W., De Oliveira, E., Pombosa, R., Noriega, L., and Vauchel, P.: Discharge simulation in the sub-basins of the Amazon using ORCHIDEE forced by new datasets, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 16, 911-935, DOI 10.5194/hess-16-911-2012 (link)
  • Kuppel, S., Peylin, P., Chevallier, F., Bacour, C., Maignan, F., and Richardson, A. D.: Constraining a global ecosystem model with multi-site eddy-covariance data, Biogeosciences, 9, 3757-3776, DOI 10.5194/bg-9-3757-2012 (link)
  • Lafont, S., Zhao, Y., Calvet, J. C., Peylin, P., Ciais, P., Maignan, F., and Weiss, M.: Modelling LAI, surface water and Carbon fluxes at high-resolution over France: Comparison of ISBA-A-gs and ORCHIDEE, Biogeosciences, 9, 439-456, DOI 10.5194/bg-9-439-2012 (link)
  • Luyssaert, S., Abril, G., Andres, R., Bastviken, D., Bellassen, V., Bergamaschi, P., Bousquet, P., Chevallier, F., Ciais, P., Corazza, M., Dechow, R., Erb, K.-H., Etiope, G., Fortems-Cheiney, a., Grassi, G., Hartmann, J., Jung, M., Lathière, J., Lohila, a., Mayorga, E., Moosdorf, N., Njakou, D. S., Otto, J., Papale, D., Peters, W., Peylin, P., Raymond, P., Rödenbeck, C., Saarnio, S., Schulze, E.-D., Szopa, S., Thompson, R., Verkerk, P. J., Vuichard, N., Wang, R., Wattenbach, M., and Zaehle, S.: The European land and inland water CO2, CO, CH4 and N2O balance between 2001 and 2005, Biogeosciences, 9, 3357-3380, 10.5194/bg-9-3357-2012 (link)
  • Ringeval, B., Decharme, B., Piao, S. L., Ciais, P., Papa, F., de Noblet-Ducoudre, N., Prigent, C., Friedlingstein, P., Gouttevin, I., Koven, C., and Ducharne, A.: Modelling sub-grid wetland in the ORCHIDEE global land surface model: Evaluation against river discharges and remotely sensed data, Geoscientific Model Development, 5, 941-962, DOI 10.5194/gmd-5-941-2012 (link)
  • Zhao, Y., Ciais, P., Peylin, P., Viovy, N., Longdoz, B., Bonnefond, J. M., Rambal, S., Klumpp, K., Olioso, A., Cellier, P., Maignan, F., Eglin, T., and Calvet, J. C.: How errors on meteorological variables impact simulated ecosystem fluxes: A case study for six French sites, Biogeosciences, 9, 2537-2564, DOI 10.5194/bg-9-2537-2012 (link)
  • Guimberteau M., Perrier A., Laval K. and Polcher J. (2012): A comprehensive approach to analyze discrepancies between land surface models and in-situ measurements: a case study over the US and Illinois with SECHIBA forced by NLDAS, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 3973-3988, doi:10.5194/hess-16-3973-2012
  • Guimberteau M., Laval K., Perrier A. and Polcher J. (2012): Global effect of irrigation and its impact on the onset of the Indian summer monsoon, Clim. Dyn., 39:1329-1348, doi:10.1007/s00382-011-1252-5



  • Anav, A., Menut, L., Khvorostyanov, D., and Viovy, N.: Impact of tropospheric Ozone on the Euro-Mediterranean vegetation, Global Change Biology, 17, 2342-2359, DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2010.02387.x (link)
  • Bellassen, V., le Maire, G., Guin, O., Dhote, J. F., Ciais, P., and Viovy, N.: Modelling forest management within a global vegetation model-part 2: Model validation from a tree to a continental scale, Ecological Modelling, 222, 57-75, DOI 10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2010.08.038 (link)
  • Bellassen, V., Viovy, N., Luyssaert, S., le Maire, G., Schelhaas, M. J., and Ciais, P.: Reconstruction and attribution of the Carbon sink of European forests between 1950 and 2000, Global Change Biology, 17, 3274-3292, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02476.x (link)
  • Koven, C. D., Ringeval, B., Friedlingstein, P., Ciais, P., Cadule, P., Khvorostyanov, D., Krinner, G., and Tarnocai, C.: Permafrost Carbon-climate feedbacks accelerate global warming, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108, 14769-14774, DOI 10.1073/pnas.1103910108 (link)
  • Maignan, F., Bréon, F.M., Chevallier, F., Viovy, N., Ciais, P., Trules, J. & Mancip, M. (2011). Evaluation of a Global Vegetation Model using time series of satellite vegetation indices. Geoscientific Model Development, 4, 1103–1114, doi:10.5194/gmd-4-1103-2011 (link)
  • Verbeeck, H., Peylin, P., Bacour, C., Bonal, D., Steppe, K., and Ciais, P.: Seasonal patterns of CO2 fluxes in Amazon forests: Fusion of eddy covariance data and the ORCHIDEE model, Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 116, Artn G02018, Doi 10.1029/2010jg001544 (link)
  • Woillez, M. N., Kageyama, M., Krinner, G., de Noblet-Ducoudre, N., Viovy, N., and Mancip, M.: Impact of CO2 and climate on the last glacial maximum vegetation: Results from the ORCHIDEE/IPSL models, Climate of the Past, 7, 557-577, DOI 10.5194/cp-7-557-2011 (link)


  • Alkama, R., Kageyama, M., and Ramstein, G.: Relative contributions of climate change, stomatal closure, and leaf area index changes to 20th and 21st century runoff change: A modelling approach using the organizing Carbon and Hydrology in dynamic ecosystems (ORCHIDEE) land surface model, Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 115, Artn D17112, Doi 10.1029/2009jd013408 (link)
  • Bellassen, V., Le Maire, G., Dhote, J. F., Ciais, P., and Viovy, N.: Modelling forest management within a global vegetation model part 1: Model structure and general behaviour, Ecological Modelling, 221, 2458-2474, DOI 10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2010.07.008 (link)
  • Cadule, P., Friedlingstein, P., Bopp, L., Sitch, S., Jones, C. D., Ciais, P., Piao, S. L., and Peylin, P.: Benchmarking coupled climate-carbon models against long-term atmospheric CO2 measurements, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 24, Doi 10.1029/2009gb003556 (link)
  • Ciais, P., Wattenbach, M., Vuichard, N., Smith, P. C., Piao, S. L., Don, A., Luyssaert, S., Janssens, I. A., Bondeau, A., Dechow, R., Leip, A., Beer, C., van der Werf, G. R., Gervois, S., Van Oost, K., Tomelleri, E., Freibauer, A., Schulze, E. D., and Team, C.-I. S. t.: The European Carbon balance. Part 2: Croplands, Global Change Biology, 16, 1409-1428, 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.02055.x (link)
  • Delbart, N., Ciais, P., Chave, J., Viovy, N., Malhi, Y., and Le Toan, T.: Mortality as a key driver of the spatial distribution of above-ground biomass in Amazonian forest: Results from a Dynamic Vegetation Model, Biogeosciences, 7, 3027-3039, DOI 10.5194/bg-7-3027-2010 (link)
  • Luyssaert, S., Ciais, P., Piao, S. L., Schulze, E. D., Jung, M., Zaehle, S., Schelhaas, M. J., Reichstein, M., Churkina, G., Papale, D., Abril, G., Beer, C., Grace, J., Loustau, D., Matteucci, G., Magnani, F., Nabuurs, G. J., Verbeeck, H., Sulkava, M., van der Werf, G. R., Janssens, I. A., and Team, C.-I. S. t.: The European Carbon balance. Part 3: Forests, Global Change Biology, 16, 1429-1450, 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.02056.x (link)
  • Ringeval, B., de Noblet-Ducoudre, N., Ciais, P., Bousquet, P., Prigent, C., Papa, F., and Rossow, W. B.: An attempt to quantify the impact of changes in wetland extent on Methane emissions on the seasonal and interannual time scales, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 24, Artn Gb2003, Doi 10.1029/2008gb003354 (link)
  • Risi, C., Bony, S., Vimeux, F., Frankenberg, C., Noone, D., and Worden, J.: Understanding the Sahelian water budget through the isotopic composition of water vapor and precipitation, Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 115, Artn D24110, Doi 10.1029/2010jd014690 (link)
  • Smith, P. C., Ciais, P., Peylin, P., De Noblet-Ducoudre, N., Viovy, N., Meurdesoif, Y., and Bondeau, A.: European-wide simulations of croplands using an improved terrestrial biosphere model: 2. Interannual yields and anomalous CO2 fluxes in 2003, Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 115, Doi 10.1029/2009jg001041 (link)
  • Tan, K., Ciais, P., Piao, S. L., Wu, X. P., Tang, Y. H., Vuichard, N., Liang, S., and Fang, J. Y.: Application of the ORCHIDEE global vegetation model to evaluate biomass and soil Carbon stocks of Qinghai-Tibetan grasslands, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 24, Artn Gb1013, Doi 10.1029/2009gb003530 (link)
  • Zaehle, S., and Friend, A. D.: Carbon and nitrogen cycle dynamics in the O-CN land surface model: 1. Model description, site-scale evaluation, and sensitivity to parameter estimates, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 24, Artn Gb1005, Doi 10.1029/2009gb003521 (link)
  • Zaehle, S., Friend, A. D., Friedlingstein, P., Dentener, F., Peylin, P., and Schulz, M.: Carbon and Nitrogen cycle dynamics in the O-CN land surface model: 2. Role of the nitrogen cycle in the historical terrestrial Carbon balance, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 24, Doi 10.1029/2009gb003522 (link)



  • Colleoni, F., Krinner, G., and Jakobsson, M.: Sensitivity of the Late Saalian (140 kyrs BP) and LGM (21 kyrs BP) Eurasian ice sheet surface mass balance to vegetation feedbacks, Geophysical Research Letters, 36, L08704, 10.1029/2009gl037200 (link)
  • Jost, A., Fauquette, S., Kageyama, M., Krinner, G., Ramstein, G., Sue, J. P., and Violette, S.: High resolution climate and vegetation simulations of the late Pliocene, a model-data comparison over western Europe and the Mediterranean region, Climate of the Past, 5, 585-606 (link)
  • Koven, C., Friedlingstein, P., Ciais, P., Khvorostyanov, D., Krinner, G., and Tarnocai, C.: On the formation of high-latitude soil carbon stocks: Effects of cryoturbation and insulation by organic matter in a land surface model, Geophysical Research Letters, 36, L21501, 10.1029/2009gl040150 (link)
  • Piao, S. L., Fang, J. Y., Ciais, P., Peylin, P., Huang, Y., Sitch, S., and Wang, T.: The Carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems in China, Nature, 458, 1009-U1082, Doi 10.1038/Nature07944 (link)
  • Piao, S. L., Friedlingstein, P., Ciais, P., Peylin, P., Zhu, B., and Reichstein, M.: Footprint of temperature changes in the temperate and boreal forest carbon balance, Geophysical Research Letters, 36, Artn L07404, Doi 10.1029/2009gl037381 (link)
  • Rosnay, P. de, Drusch, M., Boone, A., Balsamo, G., Decharme, B., Harris, P., Kerr, Y., Pellarin, T., Polcher, J., and Wigneron, J.-P. (2009).: AMMA Land Surface Model Intercomparison Experiment coupled to the Community Microwave Emission Model: ALMIP-MEM. Journal of Geophysical Research, Volume 114, Issue D5, 16 March 2009 (link)
  • Werth, S., Güntner, A., Petrovic, S., and Schmidt, R. (2009). : Integration of GRACE mass variations into a global hydrological model.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 277(1-2), 166–173. (link)



  • Abramowitz, Gab, Leuning, Ray, Clark, Martyn, and Pitman, Andy (2008). Evaluating the Performance of Land Surface Models. Journal of Climate, 21(21), 5468–5481. (link)
  • Ciais, P., Schelhaas, M. J., Zaehle, S., Piao, S. L., Cescatti, A., Liski, J., Luyssaert, S., Le-Maire, G., Schulze, E. D., Bouriaud, O., Freibauer, A., Valentini, R., and Nabuurs, G. J.: Carbon accumulation in European forests, Nature Geoscience, 1, 425-429 (link)
  • Ciais, P., Piao, S.-L., Cadule, P., Friedlingstein, P., and Chédin, A. (2008). Variability and recent trends in the African carbon balance. Biogeosciences Discuss., 5(4), 3497–3532. (link)
  • Gervois, Sébastien, Ciais, Philippe, Noblet-Ducoudré, Nathalie de, Brisson, Nadine, Vuichard, Nicolas, and Viovy, Nicolas (2008). Carbon and water balance of European croplands throughout the 20th century. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Volume 22, Issue 2, June 2008 (link)
  • Hollingsworth, A., Engelen, R. J., Textor, C., Benedetti, A., Boucher, O., Chevallier, F., Dethof, A., Elbern, H., Eskes, H., Flemming, J., Granier, C., Kaiser, J. W., Morcrette, J.-J., Rayner, P., Peuch, V.-H., Rouil, L., Schultz, M. G., and Simmons, A. J. (2008). Toward a Monitoring and Forecasting System For Atmospheric Composition: The GEMS Project. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 89(8), 1147–1164. (link)
  • d’Orgeval, T., and Polcher, J.: Impacts of precipitation events and land-use changes on West African river discharges during the years 1951-2000, Climate Dynamics, 31, 249-262, DOI 10.1007/s00382-007-0350-x (link)
  • d’Orgeval, T., Polcher, J., and de Rosnay, P.: Sensitivity of the West African hydrological cycle in ORCHIDEE to infiltration processes, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 12, 1387-1401 (link)
  • Khvorostyanov, D. V., Ciais, P., Krinner, G., and Zimov, S. A.: Vulnerability of East Siberia’s frozen carbon stores to future warming, Geophysical Research Letters, 35, L10703, 10.1029/2008gl033639 (link)
  • Piao, S. L., Ciais, P., Friedlingstein, P., Peylin, P., Reichstein, M., Luyssaert, S., Margolis, H., Fang, J. Y., Barr, A., Chen, A. P., Grelle, A., Hollinger, D. Y., Laurila, T., Lindroth, A., Richardson, A. D., and Vesala, T.: Net Carbon Dioxide losses of northern ecosystems in response to autumn warming, Nature, 451, 49-U43, Doi 10.1038/Nature06444 (link)
  • Richardson, A. D., Mahecha, M. D., Falge, E., Kattge, J., Moffat, A. M., Papale, D., Reichstein, M., Stauch, V. J., Braswell, B. H., and Churkina, G. (2008). Statistical properties of random CO2 flux measurement uncertainty inferred from model residuals. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 148(1), 38–50.
  • Sterling, S., and Ducharne, A.: Comprehensive data set of global land cover change for land surface model applications, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 22, Artn Gb3017, Doi 10.1029/2007gb002959 (link)
  • Vetter, M., Churkina, G., Jung, M., Reichstein, M., Zaehle, S., Bondeau, A., Chen, Y., Ciais, P., Feser, F., Freibauer, A., Geyer, R., Jones, C., Papale, D., Tenhunen, J., Tomelleri, E., Trusilova, K., Viovy, N., and Heimann, M. (2008). Analyzing the causes and spatial pattern of the European 2003 carbon flux anomaly using seven models. Biogeosciences, 5(2), 561–583. (link)
  • Weber, U., Jung, M., Reichstein, M., Beer, C., Braakhekke, M., Lehsten, V., Ghent, D., Kaduk, J., Viovy, N., Ciais, P., Gobron, N., and Rödenbeck, C. (2008). The inter-annual variability of Africa’s ecosystem productivity: a multi-model analysis. Biogeosciences Discuss., 5(5), 4035–4069. (link)


  • Abramowitz, Gab, Pitman, Andy, Gupta, Hoshin, Kowalczyk, Eva, and Wang, Yingping (2007). Systematic Bias in Land Surface Models.Journal of Hydrometeorology, 8(5), 989–1001. (link)
  • Canadell, Josep G., Quér\’e, Corinne Le, Raupach, Michael R., Field, Christopher B., Buitenhuis, Erik T., Ciais, Philippe, Conway, Thomas J., Gillett, Nathan P., Houghton, R. A., and Marland, Gregg (2007). Contributions to accelerating atmospheric CO2 growth from economic (link)activity, carbon intensity, and efficiency of natural sinks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(47), 18866–18870. (link)
  • Davin, E. L., Noblet-Ducoudré, N. de, and Friedlingstein, P. Impact of land cover change on surface climate: Relevance of the radiative forcing concept. Geophysical Research Letters. Volume 34, Issue 13, 16 July 2007 (link)
  • Demarty, J., Chevallier, F., Friend, A. D., Viovy, N., Piao, S., and Ciais, P.: Assimilation of global MODIS leaf area index retrievals within a terrestrial biosphere model, Geophysical Research Letters, 34, Artn L15402, Doi 10.1029/2007gl030014 (link)
  • Friend, AD, Arneth, A, Kiang, NY, Lomas, M, Ogee, J, Rodenbeckk, C, Running, SW, Santaren, JD, Sitch, S, Viovy, N, Woodward, FI, and Zaehle, S (2007). FLUXNET and modelling the global carbon cycle.Global change Biology, 13(3), 610–633.
  • Jung, M., Le Maire, G., Zaehle, S., Luyssaert, S., Vetter, M., Churkina, G., Ciais, P., Viovy, N., and Reichstein, M.: Assessing the ability of three land ecosystem models to simulate gross carbon uptake of forests from boreal to Mediterranean climate in Europe, Biogeosciences, 4, 647-656 (link)
  • Jung, Martin, Vetter, Mona, Herold, Martin, Churkina, Galina, Reichstein, Markus, Zaehle, Soenke, Ciais, Philippe, Viovy, Nicolas, Bondeau, Alberte, Chen, Youmin, Trusilova, Kristina, Feser, Frauke, and Heimann, Martin . Uncertainties of modeling gross primary productivity over Europe: A systematic study on the effects of using different drivers and terrestrial biosphere models. Global Biogeochemical Cycles Volume 21, Issue 4, December 2007 (link)
  • Ngo-Duc, T., Laval, K., Ramillien, G., Polcher, J., and Cazenave, A.: Validation of the land water storage simulated by organising Carbon and Hydrology in dynamic ecosystems (ORCHIDEE) with gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE) data, Water Resources Research, 43, Artn W04427, Doi 10.1029/2006wr004941 (link)
  • Piao, Shilong, Friedlingstein, Pierre, Ciais, Philippe, Noblet-Ducoudré, Nathalie de, Labat, David, and Zaehle, Sönke (2007).Changes in climate and land use have a larger direct impact than rising CO2 on global river runoff trends.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(39), 15242–15247.(link)
  • Piao, Shilong, Friedlingstein, Pierre, Ciais, Philippe, Viovy, Nicolas, and Demarty, Jér\^ome (2007). Growing season extension and its impact on terrestrial carbon cycle in the Northern Hemisphere over the past 2 decades.(link)
  • Reichstein, M, Ciais, P, Papale, D, Valentini, R, Running, S, Viovy, N, Cramer, W, Granier, A, Ogee, J, Allard, V, Aubinet, M, Bernhofer, C, Buchmann, N, Carrara, A, Grunwald, T, Heimann, M, Heinesch, B, Knohl, A, Kutsch, W, Loustau, D, Manca, G, Matteucci, G, Miglietta, F, Ourcival, JM, Pilegaard, K, Pumpanen, J, Rambal, S, Schaphoff, S, Seufert, G, Soussana, JF, Sanz, MJ, Vesala, T, and Zhao, M (2007).Reduction of ecosystem productivity and respiration during the European summer 2003 climate anomaly: a joint flux tower, remote sensing and modelling analysis.Global Change Biology, 13(3), 634–651. (link)
  • Santaren D., Philippe Peylin, Nicolas Viovy, and Philippe Ciais, Optimizing a Process based Ecosystem Model with Eddy-Covariance Flux Measurements: Part 1. A Pine Forest in Southern France, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 21 (2) (link)
  • Seguin, Bernard, Arrouays, Dominique, Balesdent, Jérome, Soussana, Jean-François, Bondeau, Alberte, Smith, Pascalle, Zaehle, Sönke, Noblet, Nathalie de, and Viovy, Nicolas (2007).Moderating the impact of agriculture on climate.Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 142(2-4), 278–287. (link)
  • Vautard, R., Yiou, P., D’Andrea, F., Noblet, N. de, Viovy, N., Cassou, C., Polcher, J., Ciais, P., Kageyama, M., and Fan, Y. (2007).Summertime European heat and drought waves induced by wintertime Mediterranean rainfall deficit. (link)


  • Chevallier, Fréd\’eric, Viovy, Nicolas, Reichstein, Markus, and Ciais, Philippe (2006).On the assignment of prior errors in Bayesian inversions of CO2 surface fluxes. Geophysical Research Letters Volume 33, Issue 13, July 2006 (link)
  • Hordoir, R., Nguyen, K. D., and Polcher, J. (2006). Simulating tropical river plumes, a set of parametrizations based on macroscale data: A test case in the Mekong Delta region.Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans (1978–2012) Volume 111, Issue C9, September 2006 (link)
  • Lathiere, J., Hauglustaine, D. A., De Noblet-Ducoudre, N., Krinner, G., and Folberth, G. A.: Past and future changes in biogenic volatile organic compound emissions simulated with a global dynamic vegetation model, Geophysical Research Letters, 32, L20818, 10.1029/2005gl024164 (link)
  • Piao, SL, Fang, JY, Zhou, LM, Ciais, P, and Zhu, B (2006). Variations in satellite-derived phenology in China’s temperate vegetation.Global Change Biology, 12(4), 672–685.(link)
  • Piao, SL, Fang, JY, Zhou, LM, Ciais, P, and Zhu, B (2006). Variations in satellite-derived phenology in China’s temperate vegetation. Global Change Biology, 12(4), 672–685. (link)
  • Piao, Shilong, Friedlingstein, Pierre, Ciais, Philippe, Zhou, Liming, and Chen, Anping (2006). Effect of climate and CO2 changes on the greening of the Northern Hemisphere over the past two decades. Geophysical Research Letters Volume 33, Issue 23, December 2006 (link)


  • Abramowitz, Gab (2005).Towards a benchmark for land surface models. Geophysical Research Letters, 32, 22702.(link)
  • Berthelot, Marie, Friedlingstein, Pierre, Ciais, Philippe, Dufresne, Jean-Louis, and Monfray, Patrick (2005). How uncertainties in future climate change predictions translate into future terrestrial carbon fluxes. Global Change Biology, 11(6), 959–970.(link)
  • Ciais, P., Reichstein, M., Viovy, N., Granier, A., Ogee, J., Allard, V., Aubinet, M., Buchmann, N., Bernhofer, C., Carrara, A., Chevallier, F., De Noblet, N., Friend, A. D., Friedlingstein, P., Grunwald, T., Heinesch, B., Keronen, P., Knohl, A., Krinner, G., Loustau, D., Manca, G., Matteucci, G., Miglietta, F., Ourcival, J. M., Papale, D., Pilegaard, K., Rambal, S., Seufert, G., Soussana, J. F., Sanz, M. J., Schulze, E. D., Vesala, T., and Valentini, R.: Europe-wide reduction in primary productivity caused by the heat and drought in 2003, Nature, 437, 529-533, 10.1038/nature03972 (link)
  • Krinner, G., Viovy, N., de Noblet-Ducoudre, N., Ogee, J., Polcher, J., Friedlingstein, P., Ciais, P., Sitch, S., and Prentice, I. C.: A dynamic global vegetation model for studies of the coupled atmosphere-biosphere system, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 19, Gb1015, 10.1029/2003gb002199 (link)
  • Krinner, G., Ciais, P., Viovy, N., and Friedlingstein, P. (2005). A simple parameterization of nitrogen limitation on primary productivity for global vegetation models. Biogeosciences Discuss., 2(4), 1243–1282. (link)
  • Lathiere, J., Hauglustaine, D. A., De Noblet-Ducoudre, N., Krinner, G., and Folberth, G. A.: Past and future changes in biogenic volatile organic compound emissions simulated with a global dynamic vegetation model, Geophysical Research Letters, 32, L20818, 10.1029/2005gl024164 (link)
  • Loustau, Denis, Bosc, Alexandre, Colin, Antoine, Ogee, Jerome, Davi, Hendrik, Francois, Christophe, Dufrene, Eric, Deque, Michel, Cloppet, Emmanuel, Arrouays, Dominique, Bas, Christine Le, Saby, Nicolas, Pignard, Gerome, Hamza, Nabila, Granier, Andre, Breda, Nathalie, Ciais, Philippe, Viovy, Nicolas, and Delage, Francois (2005). Modeling climate change effects on the potential production of French plains forests at the sub-regional level. Tree Physiol, 25(7), 813–823.(link)
  • Morales, Pablo, Sykes, Martin T., Prentice, I. Colin, Smith, Pete, Smith, Benjamin, Bugmann, Harald, Zierl, Barbel, Friedlingstein, Pierre, Viovy, Nicolas, Sabate, Santi, Sanchez, Anabel, Pla, Eduard, Gracia, Carlos A., Sitch, Stephen, Arneth, Almut, and Ogee, Jerome (2005). Comparing and evaluating process-based ecosystem model predictions of carbon and water fluxes in major European forest biomes. Global Change Biology, 11(12), 2211–2233. (link)
  • Ngo-Duc, T., Polcher, J., and Laval, K. (2005). A 53-year forcing data set for land surface models. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres (1984–2012) Volume 110, Issue D6, 27 March 2005 (link)
  • Ngo-Duc, T., Laval, K., Polcher, J., and Cazenave, A. (2005). Contribution of continental water to sea level variations during the 1997–1998 El Niño–Southern Oscillation event: Comparison between Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project simulations and TOPEX/Poseidon satellite data. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres (1984–2012), Volume 110, Issue D9, 16 May 2005 (link)
  • Ngo-Duc, T., Laval, K., Polcher, J., Lombard, A., and Cazenave, A. (2005). Effects of land water storage on global mean sea level over the past half century. Geophysical Research Letters Volume 32, Issue 9, May 2005(link)
  • Peylin, Philippe, Bousquet, Philippe, Quér\’e, Corinne Le, Sitch, Stephen, Friedlingstein, Pierre, McKinley, Galen, Gruber, Nicolas, Rayner, Peter, and Ciais, Philippe (2005).Multiple constraints on regional CO2 flux variations over land and oceans.Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Volume 19, Issue 1, March 2005. (link)


  • Best, M. J., Beljaars, A., Polcher, J., and Viterbo, P. (2004).A Proposed Structure for Coupling Tiled Surfaces with the Planetary Boundary Layer. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 5(6), 1271–1278. (link)
  • Gervois, S., Noblet-Ducoudré, N. de, Viovy, N., Ciais, P., Brisson, N., Seguin, B., and Perrier, A. (2004). Including croplands in a global biosphere model: methodology and evaluation at specific sites. Earth Interactions, 8(1234567891012111415131617181920212223), 1–25.
  • de Noblet-Ducoudre, N., Gervois, S., Ciais, P., Viovy, N., Brisson, N., Seguin, B., and Perrier, A.: Coupling the soil-vegetation-atmosphere-transfer scheme ORCHIDEE to the agronomy model STICS to study the influence of croplands on the European Carbon and water budgets, Agronomie, 24, 397-407, Doi 10.1051/Agro:2004038 (link)


  • de Rosnay, P., Polcher, J., Laval, K., and Sabre, M.: Integrated parameterisation of irrigation in the land surface model ORCHIDEE. Validation over Indian Peninsula, Geophysical Research Letters, 30, Artn 1986, Doi 10.1029/2003gl018024 (link)
  • Ducharne, A., Golaz, C., Leblois, E., Laval, K., Polcher, J., Ledoux, E., and de Marsily, G.: Development of a high resolution runoff routing model, calibration and application to assess runoff from the LMD GCM, Journal of Hydrology, 280, 207-228, Doi 10.1016/S0022-1694(03)00230-0 (link)


  • Berthelot, M, Friedlingstein, P, Ciais, P, Monfray, P, Dufresne, JL, Treut, H Le, and Fairhead, L (2002). Global response of the terrestrial biosphere to CO2 and climate change using a coupled climate-carbon cycle model. Gobal Biogeochemical Cycles, 16(4).(link)
  • de Rosnay, P., Polcher, J., Bruen, M., and Laval, K.: Impact of a physically based soil water flow and soil-plant interaction representation for modeling large-scale land surface processes, Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 107, Artn 4118, Doi 10.1029/2001jd000634 (link)
  • Dufresne, JL, Friedlingstein, P, Berthelot, M, Bopp, L, Ciais, P, Fairhead, L, Treut, H Le, and Monfray, P (2002). On the magnitude of positive feedback between future climate change and the carbon cycle. Geophysical Research Letters, 29(10). (link)


  • Schulz, Jan-Peter, Dümenil, Lydia, and Polcher, Jan (2001). On the Land Surface–Atmosphere Coupling and Its Impact in a Single-Column Atmospheric Model. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 40(3), 642–663. (link)


  • de Rosnay, P., Bruen, M. and Polcher, J., (2000). Sensitivity of the surface fluxes to the number of layers in the soil model used in GCMs. Geophys. Res. Lett. 27(20): 3329-3332. (link)
  • Ducharne, A. S., and Laval, K.: Influence of the realistic description of soil water-holding capacity on the global water cycle in a GCM, Journal of Climate, 13, 4393-4413, Doi 10.1175/1520-0442(2000)013<4393:Iotrdo>2.0.Co;2 (link)


  • Rosnay, P. de and Polcher, J. (1999).Modelling root water uptake in a complex land surface scheme coupled to a GCM. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 2(2/3), 239–255. (link)


  • Ducharne, A., Laval, K., and Polcher, J.: Sensitivity of the hydrological cycle to the parametrization of soil hydrology in a GCM, Climate Dynamics, 14, 307-327, DOI 10.1007/s003820050226 (link)
  • Polcher, J., McAvaney, B., Viterbo, P., Gaertner, M. A., Hahmann, A., Mahfouf, J. F., Noilhan, J., Phillips, T., Pitman, A., Schlosser, C. A., Schulz, J. P., Timbal, B., Verseghy, D., and Xue, Y.: A proposal for a general interface between land surface schemes and general circulation models, Global and Planetary Change, 19, 261-276, Doi 10.1016/S0921-8181(98)00052-6 (link)
  • Schulz, J.-P., Dümenil, L., Polcher, J., Schlosser, C. A., and Xue, Y. (1998). Land Surface Energy and Moisture Fluxes: Comparing Three Models. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 37(3), 288–307. (link)



  • Peylin, P., Polcher, J., Bonan, G., Williamson, D. L., and Laval, K.: Comparison of two complex land surface schemes coupled to the national center for atmospheric research general circulation model, Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 102, 19413-19431, Doi 10.1029/97jd00489 (link)
  • Viovy, N.: Interannuality and CO2 sensitivity of the SECHIBA-BGC coupled SVAT-BGC model, Physics and Chemistry of The Earth, 21, 489-497 (link)


  • Ducoudré, Nathale I., Laval, Katia, and Perrier, Alain (1993). SECHIBA, a New Set of Parameterizations of the Hydrologic Exchanges at the Land-Atmosphere Interface within the LMD Atmospheric General Circulation Model. Journal of Climate, 6(2), 248–273. (link)
  • Mahfouf, J. F., Ciret, C., Ducharne, A., Irannejad, P., Noilhan, J., Shao, Y., Thornton, P., Xue, Y., and Yang, Z. L.: Analysis of transpiration results from the RICE and PILPS workshop, Global and Planetary Change, 13, 73-88, Doi 10.1016/0921-8181(95)00039-9 (link)
  • Polcher, J., Laval, K., Dümenil, L., Lean, J., and Rowntree, P. R. (1996). Comparing three land surface schemes used in general circulation models. Journal of Hydrology, 180(1-4), 373–394. (link)


  • Ducoudré, N. I., Laval, K., and Perrier, A.: Sechiba: a new set of parameterizations of the hydrologic exchanges at the land atmosphere interface within the LMD atmospheric general-circulation model, Journal of Climate, 6, 248-273 (link)


  • Laval, K., Sadourny, R., and Serafini, Y.: Land surface processes in a simplified general-circulation model, Geophysical and Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics, 17, 129-150, Doi 10.1080/03091928108243677 (link)

Ongoing developments

Posted Posted in About ORCHIDEE


  • An improved canopy radiation transfer scheme
  • A multi-layer energy budget
  • Implementation of the dynamics of snow packing and snow melt
  • The inclusion of isotopes (18O and 13C)


  • Introduction of parameter sets for new PFTs, to drive the externalized version
  • Soil micro-organism representation for SOM decomposition
  • DOC/DIC production and leaching
  • Simulation of forest fires, based on the SPITFIRE model
  • Forest demography, including stochastic processes


  • Differentiating forest management
  • Biofuel crop management
  • New crop specific modules (such as rice and sugar cane)

Code structure

  • Development of the “Adjoint” code

For more further details, please don’t hesitate to contact us.